Everybody should learn how to perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), almost 70% of Americans don’t know how to do CPR if somebody is experiencing a cardiac emergency or people follow wrong techniques to perform CPR. According to a survey more than 75% of cardiac arrests occur at home where patients depend on the immediate respiratory care response of their family members. Thus, knowing the correct CPR process can help saving the life of loved ones.
Below are the crucial steps used while administering CPR on an adult:
- Ask the victim, “are you ok?” to check for consciousness. Try tapping on the shoulders to stimulate the victim. If the victim is truly not breathing and requires CPR, continue with the sequence.
- Position the victim laying flat on his back. Open or remove the victim’s shirt to provide access to the chest. Kneel next to the victim and position the hands on the victim’s chest.
- The heel of one palm should be placed on the center of the chest, in line with the victim’s nipples. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first and interlock fingers.
- The fingers should point towards the victim’s nipples, with the long axis of the hand parallel to the ribs. This reduces the chance of rib fractures.
- Compression are delivered with the heel of the palm. Fingers should not make contact with the chest during compression. It may be necessary to extend or curl the fingers under to achieve this position.
- The rescuer should keep his elbows straight, shoulders over the hands, and lean over the victim. This creates a posture that allows hard and fast compression to be delivered.
- When administering compression to a small child, only one hand may be needed.
- Begin with 30 chest compression at a rate of at least 100 compression per minute. Allow the chest to completely recoil between compression. Press on the center of the chest. It may be helpful to count the compression out loud as they are administered to keep track of progress.
- For adult victims, the compression should be two inches deep.
- For child victims, the compressions should be 1/3 the chest diameter, or about two inches deep.
Following the cycle of 30 compression, administer two ventilation:
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and lifting the jaw. This lifts the victim’s tongue from the back of the throat, allowing air to pass into the lungs.
- Look into the victim’s mouth and remove any visible obstructions.
- Position the fact shield or other protective device if one is available.
- Pinch the victim’s nostrils closed to prevent air from escaping.
- The rescuer should take a deep breath and position his mouth around the victim’s mouth. The rescuer uses his lips to form a seal around the victim’s mouth to prevent air from escaping.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth until his chest rises. This takes about two seconds.
- Allow the victim’s chest to fall, about four seconds.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth a second time, forming the second ventilation of the cycle.
- The entire ventilation sequence should take less than 10 seconds.
- Alternate between 30 compressions and 2 breaths. If multiple rescuers are present, take turns administering compressions to prevent fatigue, switching every two minutes.
- Administer the AED as soon as it is available. Repeat AED use after five cycles of CPR.
If the victim’s chest does not rise during ventilations:
- Check the head position to ensure the airway is open. It may be necessary to tilt the head father back.
- Check for foreign material inside the mouth.
- Ensure that the nostrils are completely closed and that there is a tight seal around the victim’s mouth.
Alternative forms of respiration:
- If the victim has a stoma, or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing following a larynx removal, the rescuer needs to breathe into this opening instead of the mouth. It may still be necessary to hold the mouth and nostrils closed.
- If severe mouth injuries are present, preventing a tight seal from being formed around the victim’s mouth, the rescuer can breathe into the victim’s nose. Hold the mouth closed while you blow into the nose. Open the mouth to let the air out.
The more people available for these steps, the better. However, if someone is alone he/she should call 911 for emergency medical services before starting CPR treatment.
CPR Select provides you with nationally and internationally-accepted online CPR/AED First Aid certification program. The courses exist completely online, with no face-to-face requirements. All the materials are designed and approved by American Heart Association (AHA) trained doctors.
Skin burns are serious injuries that require immediate attention. The type of burn will dictate the actions when it comes to providing first aid. The larger the body area burned, the greater the disruption of the skin’s ability to properly maintain body temperature. The deeper a burn goes into the skin and underlying tissue, the more likely the risk of infection. Burn-related first aid is best performed by people who know what to do for victims.
Early first aid treatment of burns can help minimize the damage that can occur and prevent later complications. Burns require immediate attention but the wrong treatment can be more problematic than helpful. Hence, it is important to learn basic first aid for burns that will help minimize the damage and help the victim to recover successfully.
There are three categories of burns with increasing seriousness that range from mild to major:
|Symtoms||First Degree Burns||Second Degree Burns||Third Degree Burns|
|Pain||Yes||Yes||No (due to the destruction of nerve endings)|
|Depth of injury||Outer layer of skin||Under skin is affected||Skin is destroyed, muscle and bone layers may be affected|
|Appearance||Reddening & Slight Swelling||Blisters, Wet, shiny appearance||Charred, white, or grayish|
Burns can be attributed to thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation causes. Severe burns can affect more than the skin layers. Respiratory failure can be caused by severe burns. Blindness can result from burns to the eyes. A victim may go into shock from serious burns. Serious burns are a cause of death.
Treatment for Burns:
- Removing any material covering the injury, such as clothing. Cut around portions of clothing that stick to the injury.
- Flood the area with cool water for at least ten minutes. This will stop the burning and relieve pain.
- Cover the burn with a sterile dressing, free from oils and grease. (Oils and grease need to be removed before additional medical treatment is provided, causing additional and unnecessary pain and increase the chance of infection.)
- Take care to prevent foreign materials, including germs and rescuer’s fingers, from entering the burned area.
- Treat pain associated with the burn.
- Check on dressings, jewelry, and clothing to ensure that they do not become too tight if swelling increases.
- Monitor the victim for signs of shock.
- Seek additional medical attention or call 911 for serious burns.
In the case of minor thermal burns, use cool, moist gauze or bandages to treat the injury. Tape can be used to secure moist gauze over burned eyes. Use dry bandages for more serious thermal burns.
Blisters are “bubbles” that form under the skin. They are caused when tissue in the burned areas leak fluid, known as serum. Blisters caused by burns should never be broken. The skin underneath is damaged and susceptible to infection. Blisters do not necessarily need treatment beyond what is necessary to care for the burn. In some cases, the blister is located in an area that leaves it at risk for damage. If a blister breaks, or seems likely to break, cover it with a dry, non-adhesive bandage. Make sure that the bandage extends beyond the edges of the blister.
Chemical burns require additional steps during emergency treatment. Often, signs of a chemical burns will present slower than other types of burns.
- Remove any clothing contaminated with the chemical agent.
- Apply a neutralizing solution only if recommended by a physician.
- For dry chemical (alkali) burns, brush all loose powder from the victim. Then irrigate the area with generous amounts of water. Mixing alkali powders with water creates a corrosive substance.
- For other chemical burns, irrigate the area with water for 15 minutes. Potable water is preferred.
- In the case of chemical burns to the eye, have the victim lie down. Use fingertips to hold the eye open and slowly pour water into the inner corner of the eye. Continue flushing until water flows across the entire eye and clears the contaminants. Cover the eyes with moistened gauze and seek medical attention from an eye specialist. Do not use neutralizing solutions on the eyes.
Electrical burns often combine with more serious medical emergencies as a result of electrical shock.
- Cardiac and respiratory arrests are the most serious. Careful monitoring is necessary to identify and treat these issues.
- Another potential effect of electrical shock is bone fractures. The fractures are due to severe muscle contractions and require splinting.
- Often times, the entry exit points for electrical burns show signs of damage. There is often an internal, hidden trail of damage that connects the two points. A brown, coppery residue may also be present in instances of high-voltage shock. Do not confuse it for an additional injury.
- Ensure that the victim is disconnected from the source of the shock before rescuers touch the victim.
Radiation is undetectable to humans. Rescuers responding to radiation burns need to take great care to ensure that they are not subjected to the source of the radiation. If the radioactive material is still present, emergency personnel with specific protective gear need to treat the patient. In any case, rescuers should spend as little time as possible in the presence of radiation.
At CPR Select, we offer basic first aid courses online that will prepare you to provide first aid for those that injured due to burn. We not only offer training in basic first aid, but we also provide combined CPR and first aid certification and recertification. The classes that we provide can be taken at your convenience and are presented by AHA-certified instructors.