Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) has a significant impact on survival rates when performed on cardiac arrest patients outside of the hospital. To be the most effective, however, BCPR needs to be administered quickly and include the following events: immediately recognizing cardiac arrest, calling 911, performing CPR focused on chest compressions, and defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). CPR keeps blood flowing to the major organs of the body, including the brain, and using and AED will restart the heart. These procedures need to be performed immediately after the patient collapses because the chances of survival decrease rapidly with each minute that passes.
BCPR can double or triple a cardiac arrest patient’s survival rate, but unfortunately, most bystanders do not perform BCPR, even when they’ve been trained in the procedure. Less than half of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients receive BCRP. OHCA is the most common cause of death in the US and is among the most time sensitive medical emergencies.
A recent large-scale study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association examined the impact of telephone CPR (TCPR), where 911 operators guide bystanders through performing CPR on cardiac arrest patients. The study found that TCRP can improve outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. TCRP protocols were first introduced in Washington in 1984, and these protocols have now been studied in hopes of improving survival rates through implementing TCRP on a larger scale.
About the Study:
The study was conducted in Arizona and was designed to measure the impact of TCRP on patient outcomes. The study developed a comprehensive bundle of protocols, which are based on the American Heart Association guidelines for TCPR. As part of the protocol, 911 operators were trained to ask the caller two questions about the patient: are they conscious, and are they breathing normally? If both answers were “no,” callers were advised to start TCPR immediately. The study then measured the effectiveness of these protocols based on patient survival and their cerebral health performance upon discharge from the hospital.
The Study Approach:
This study involved two dispatch centers that serve 30 districts in the Phoenix area which covered approximately 2/3rd of Arizona’s population. The study examined over two thousand patients with OHCA. The study compared outcomes for OCHA both before and after the TCPR protocols were implemented at the dispatch centers.
The study examined patient’s survival rates and cerebral performance at discharge as well as many process measures such as whether the 911 operator started TCPR instructions and the time from the operator answering the call until CPR was performed.
The results of the study were positive and statistically significant for clinical outcomes and survival rates and showed the following results:
- Survival rates increased by 31%, from 9.1% to 12%
- Favorable outcomes (good cerebral performance) upon discharge from hospital improved by 41%, from 5.6% to 8.3%
- 911 operator’s identification of the need for TCPR instructions increased from 69% to 71.2% (not a statistically significant change)
- 911 operators started TCPR instructions from 50% to 56.3%
- Bystanders started TCPR at an increased rate of 43.5% to 52.8%
- Time from the 911 call being answered by the operator to their recognition of the need for TCPR decreased from 111 seconds to 99.5 seconds
- Time from the 911 call being answered until the start of TCPR instructions decreased from 205 seconds to 179 seconds
- Time from the 911 call being answered to the beginning of chest compressions decreased from 256 seconds to 212 seconds.
The study’s results showed that when the TCRP protocols were implemented system-wide, they were an effective way to increase the rate at which BCPR was performed and the survival rates of patients. Unfortunately, survival rates of OHCA remain low, even with the use of TCRP protocols. Early CPR is the most important way to increase survival rates.
The most effective way to increase chances of survival in OHCA cases is through increased CPR training on the symptoms of cardiac arrest and procedures for performing BCPR. Increased awareness of the TCPR help available from 911 operators can improve bystander’s confidence in their abilities to perform CPR with their assistance. CPR courses are offered through many community health centers as well as online.
If you’re confused about the difference between CPR and AED you’re not alone. If you’re thinking of taking a CPR or First Aid course you’re likely seeing both CPR and AED come up a lot in course descriptions and are probably wondering what they each are and which one you need to know.
What’s The Difference?
CPR stands for “cardiopulmonary resuscitation”, which is a lifesaving method used when a person’s heart has stopped. CPR requires the rhythmic compressing of a person’s chest. Your hands pumping on the chest will physically keep the blood flowing through the body to keep the organs alive. When functioning normally, the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the vital organs and when the heart stops (a cardiac arrest) it can lead to serious organ failure, brain damage, and even death, all in less than 10 minutes. CPR manually keeps the blood flowing so it can continue to deliver oxygen to the organs and can be performed while waiting for help to arrive on the scene.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) training are two different life-saving techniques, that when used together, are the most effective way of saving a victim of sudden cardiac arrest. Generally, these two techniques are taught together in first aid courses, but if you are unsure of the difference between the two, or when to use each method, keep reading.
How-to CPR posters are widely available. Everyone comes across them in public locations like restaurants and schools. A web-based image search returns thousands of results for home-made and commercially produced charts. Even though these posters are popular and easy to read, they are not an effective way to learn CPR. Printing a CPR poster does not prepare you to save a life when an unexpected emergency occurs.
There are many reasons why printing a CPR poster will not help save a life:
- Posters cover only the most basic details
- Retrieving an reviewing a poster takes time away from treating the victim
- Posters do not answer rescuer’s questions nor provide detailed explanations
- The poster may contain incorrect or out-of-date information
CPR is short for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is a technique used to save a person’s life that has a sudden cardiac arrest. During this procedure, a person initiates a series of steps in order to help the victim’s blood continue circulating and maintain oxygen levels in the victim’s body. The steps include breathing (“rescue breaths”) into the victim’s lungs and compressing the victim’s chest. Let’s break this down even further to better understand CPR.
The word “cardio” basically means the heart. Our heart is one of the most important organs in our bodies. The heart is a very strong muscle, found in the chest, which expands and contracts more than 60 times every minute and pumps blood, which is rich in oxygen, from the lungs to the rest of the organs in the body. If the heart stops pumping that all-important oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, tissue begins to die because the body’s vital organs are being deprived of the oxygen it needs to survive. This can lead to organ malfunction, brain damage or, in the worst case, death.
The word “pulmonary” essentially means the lungs. The lungs are as important as the heart because when you take a breath (which you do up to 25 times a minute!), you fill your lungs with much needed oxygen and that oxygen combines with sugar to fuel your body and its vital organs. Since the tissues in our body do not store much oxygen, it is essential that they remain constantly oxygenated.
The “R” in CPR is the most important letter and it means “resuscitation.” It basically means bringing someone who is apparently “dead,” back to life. It sounds more like a sci-fi movie than it really is. The human body only has a short supply of oxygen once the heart stops and the lungs are no longer receiving adequate oxygen. Once it runs out of oxygen, cell and tissue damage ensue, which can lead to brain damage and even death. When resuscitating a victim, it is important to remember that without oxygen, cell and tissue death begins between four and six minutes after being deprived of oxygen.
But, when would you possibly need to perform this life-saving technique?
A situation in which oxygen may be prevented from reaching the lungs includes:
- Heart attack
- Electric shock
- Ventricular fibrillation (in which the heart’s rhythm goes awry)
Today, CPR learning is important for everyone including the non-healthcare professionals like teachers, coaches, personal trainers, daycare workers, babysitters, construction workers, etc. By knowing how to provide CPR, one can literally save a life! And, since over 80% of people will experience sudden cardiac arrest outside a hospital setting, by providing CPR you can possibly restore up to 40% of the normal circulation that has stopped, giving your loved one, or a perfect stranger, a greater chance at survival.
Online CPR certification and re-certification is available through CPR Select’s convenient, flexible live classes. Go to http://www.mycprcertificationonline.com/ and sign up today so that you, too, can learn to save life of victim during the crucial time.
Seeing a child that has become unresponsive or stops breathing can be terrifying. And it can happen to you or a loved one. Most researchers believe that the most common place for your child to be injured is not where you think. It’s not on the football field. It’s not at school and it’s not in an automobile on a major highway. Research suggests that over 4 million childhood injuries that result in emergency room visits occur in the home every year.
Let’s take a look at some numbers about children and accidents due to choking and drowning:
- Over 10,000 children each year choke on their food and are taken to the local emergency room.
- Over 16 million children a year are hospitalized for accidental injuries, which include drowning and choking.
- In children under the age of 5, 90% of deaths occur from small foreign objects.
- In infants, the most common cause of choking is liquids.
- 19% of children under age 14 had choking-related injuries due to candy.
- 18% of children ages 1-4 had choking-related injuries due to coins.
- Drowning is the second-highest cause of accidental injury and death in children under age 14.
- Drowning occurs in the home more than 70% of the time and it occurs throughout the year.
- Drowning is NOT seasonal. It only takes one inch of water for a small child to drown.
Now let’s look at some important Child CPR Facts:
- If CPR is done correctly and performed early enough, it could save 100-200 thousand children annually.
- Taking 25 minutes out of your time could help you save a child’s life. According to recent research a person needs approximately 5 minutes training on using an AED (Automatic External Defibrillator) and just 20 minutes training in CPR to be effective.
- More than 90 thousand people are saved every year, thanks to someone who took the time to learn CPR.
Any child who is accidentally injured in a choking or drowning accident needs CPR immediately. Given all the facts, it is vitally important that everyone who has or is around children be certified in Child CPR. Are you prepared to perform CPR on your child of any of these accidents should occur in your presence?
Remember, it only takes a few minutes of training to save a child’s life. You can help lower the staggering statistics above by learning how to perform Child CPR.
Everybody should learn how to perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), almost 70% of Americans don’t know how to do CPR if somebody is experiencing a cardiac emergency or people follow wrong techniques to perform CPR. According to a survey more than 75% of cardiac arrests occur at home where patients depend on the immediate respiratory care response of their family members. Thus, knowing the correct CPR process can help saving the life of loved ones.
Below are the crucial steps used while administering CPR on an adult:
- Ask the victim, “are you ok?” to check for consciousness. Try tapping on the shoulders to stimulate the victim. If the victim is truly not breathing and requires CPR, continue with the sequence.
- Position the victim laying flat on his back. Open or remove the victim’s shirt to provide access to the chest. Kneel next to the victim and position the hands on the victim’s chest.
- The heel of one palm should be placed on the center of the chest, in line with the victim’s nipples. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first and interlock fingers.
- The fingers should point towards the victim’s nipples, with the long axis of the hand parallel to the ribs. This reduces the chance of rib fractures.
- Compression are delivered with the heel of the palm. Fingers should not make contact with the chest during compression. It may be necessary to extend or curl the fingers under to achieve this position.
- The rescuer should keep his elbows straight, shoulders over the hands, and lean over the victim. This creates a posture that allows hard and fast compression to be delivered.
- When administering compression to a small child, only one hand may be needed.
- Begin with 30 chest compression at a rate of at least 100 compression per minute. Allow the chest to completely recoil between compression. Press on the center of the chest. It may be helpful to count the compression out loud as they are administered to keep track of progress.
- For adult victims, the compression should be two inches deep.
- For child victims, the compressions should be 1/3 the chest diameter, or about two inches deep.
Following the cycle of 30 compression, administer two ventilation:
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and lifting the jaw. This lifts the victim’s tongue from the back of the throat, allowing air to pass into the lungs.
- Look into the victim’s mouth and remove any visible obstructions.
- Position the fact shield or other protective device if one is available.
- Pinch the victim’s nostrils closed to prevent air from escaping.
- The rescuer should take a deep breath and position his mouth around the victim’s mouth. The rescuer uses his lips to form a seal around the victim’s mouth to prevent air from escaping.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth until his chest rises. This takes about two seconds.
- Allow the victim’s chest to fall, about four seconds.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth a second time, forming the second ventilation of the cycle.
- The entire ventilation sequence should take less than 10 seconds.
- Alternate between 30 compressions and 2 breaths. If multiple rescuers are present, take turns administering compressions to prevent fatigue, switching every two minutes.
- Administer the AED as soon as it is available. Repeat AED use after five cycles of CPR.
If the victim’s chest does not rise during ventilations:
- Check the head position to ensure the airway is open. It may be necessary to tilt the head father back.
- Check for foreign material inside the mouth.
- Ensure that the nostrils are completely closed and that there is a tight seal around the victim’s mouth.
Alternative forms of respiration:
- If the victim has a stoma, or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing following a larynx removal, the rescuer needs to breathe into this opening instead of the mouth. It may still be necessary to hold the mouth and nostrils closed.
- If severe mouth injuries are present, preventing a tight seal from being formed around the victim’s mouth, the rescuer can breathe into the victim’s nose. Hold the mouth closed while you blow into the nose. Open the mouth to let the air out.
The more people available for these steps, the better. However, if someone is alone he/she should call 911 for emergency medical services before starting CPR treatment.
CPR Select provides you with nationally and internationally-accepted online CPR/AED First Aid certification program. The courses exist completely online, with no face-to-face requirements. All the materials are designed and approved by American Heart Association (AHA) trained doctors.
A person chokes when a foreign object becomes trapped at the back of the throat, either blocking the airway of causing a muscle spasm. Choking in adults is often caused by improperly chewed foods. In addition to choking on food, an infant or child may put a small object in their mouth that becomes trapped in the throat.
Symptoms of Choking:
- Difficulty speaking
- Trouble breathing
- Congested face turning to a gray-blue color
- Distress signs, such as pointing to the throat or grasping the neck
Treatment for a Conscious Adult Choking Victim:
- Choking requires immediate action
- Ask, “Are you choking?” If the victim can respond by speaking or coughing, there is no need to begin medical treatment. Continue to monitor the victim.
- If the victim is unable to speak or cough, begin the Heimlich Maneuver, a system of abdominal thrusts that work to clear the throat:
- The rescuer stands behind the victim, bringing his arms around the victim’s abdomen
- The rescuer will make a fist with one hand, placing his thumb against the victim’s abdomen. The opposite hand reaches around the victim and grasps the fist to provide support
- The rescuer links his hands below the victim’s rib-cage and pulls inward and upward with a strong force until the object is expelled
- Discontinue the Heimlich Maneuver when the victim begins to cough, speak, or lose consciousness
Treatment for an Unconscious Adult Choking Victim:
- Call 911
- Lay the victim face up on the floor
- Use one hand to support and position the victim’s chin. Use the thumb of that hand to depress the victim’s tongue while grasping the chin with the palm and fingers. At the same time, lift the jaw. Use the index finger of the opposite hand as a hook to clear any foreign materials inside the victim’s mouth
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and raising the chin. Attempt to ventilate the victim (as explained in the CPR guidelines). If the airway is still blocked, re-position the head and attempt to clear it again. If this is still not effective (the chest does not rise), begin compression
- The rescuer should kneel next to the victim and stack his hands over the middle of the victim’s chest. Deliver a series of 15 compression, as used for CPR. Alternate series of 15 compression with attempts to clear the victim’s airway and ventilate, as described in the earlier steps.
- Discontinue compression when the object is ejected, rescue breathing is successful, or the victim begins to breathe independently. Place the revived victim in the recovery position.
Today, learning CPR is a fast and easy process with online CPR Certification course. One can take these live classes anywhere on any device, making it simple to fit this AHA approved training into the busy schedule. Whether people are seeking initial certification or need re-certification for CPR training, CPR Select have a professional course to fit the needs. Hence, by learning adult CPR, one could potentially save a life.
CPR or cardio pulmonary resuscitation is a very common and important method of first aid methodologies for saving a life if you found someone collapsed on floor unconscious. It is important to learn CPR because with only a very little effort you can save a life. Good Samaritan Law also supports the effort of saving someone’s life.
Measures are now taken across the United States to train as many people as possible for administering CPR. This leads to mandatory CPR training in every schools and few states in the country have already made it compulsory. Now it’s Minnesota on its way for legislating law for compulsory CPR training in schools. What made this legislation possible is the story of a woman Jamie LaLonde who survived heart attack.
While telling her story how she became a volunteer activist for mandatory CPR training and certification at schools she said” I remember getting ready for work, and that’s the last thing I remember,” while trying to memorize what happened the day she was victimized by cardiac arrest. “The rest people have told me about.”
Two year back she used to work at a clothing store in the Mall of America. She was about to leave for a break when she suddenly collapsed with a cardiac arrest. She told further that she caters young people on the store knew nothing what to do in such a situation. “They were all 16 to 18-years-old, and not one person around me knew what to do when I fell,” she told.
Within 5 minutes a mall’s security personnel sneaked into the shop and administered CPR. EMS team arrived and shocked her twice with AED and fortunately LaLonde survived. After spending two days in coma when she opened her eyes she had a new aim of life.
She was lucky that her voice reached many and soon she got support Senator Dan Hall (R-Burnsville). He said in the support of this movement turned into legislation “This would be a huge benefit for our society to have bystanders who are trained in CPR,”
Mr. Hall is now trying for the approval of LaLonde’s bill. He said ” We are asking for 30 minutes of CPR training for any child in Minnesota that goes through seventh grade through twelfth grade,”
Hall told that the bill was formulated by AHA (American Heart Association) and the American Red Cross and they will train kids at school voluntarily charging no money from the schools, he said “It’s a small thing for a huge benefit,”
LaLonde has recovered completely. Her aim is now to be a paramedic and going to college soon but she said she dreams of her bill becoming a law. “I really think it will make a huge difference, especially among the young people, It’s teaching young people how to save people.”
CPR and BLS both are important part first aid training. I got my fingers crossed while differentiating between the two. After diving deeper down I found that both are too much coupled to each other that many people refer it as same but there do exist a slight difference among them.
To begin with CPR it is abbreviated from Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation, it is applied when a person gets a sudden cardiac arrest by this method a first aid of chest compression by hands is given to the patient to restore the cardio vascular function in combination with rescue breaths if person is not breathing properly.
BLS stands for basic life support, it’s an emergency procedure applied to a patient, it comprises of a number of technique like CPR, Shocking, and first aid treatments to sustain patient’s life until advance medical facility arrives or the person reaches hospital.
If you take a closer look at the two you’ll notice that CPR is a part of BLS, CPR is a single procedure while BLS is a set of procedures carried out in an emergency situation. CPR being a part of BLS is administered specifically to a person with no pulse and breath. BLS is applied in variety of conditions that are life threatening for the victim.
To enlarge the picture in your mind, it is understood that a BLS certified person will also be certified in CPR but it is not necessary that a CPR certified person is also certified in basic life support. To add further in this regard, when a person is clinically dead, he or she has no pulse and no breathes CPR is applied to resuscitate life, and if the revival succeeds BLS is applied immediately to sustain the resuscitated life.
These both also differ on the basis of training duration. In United States there are three levels of CPR training, CPR for Adults only, CPR for infants’ children and adults, and CPR for health care providers. At healthcare provider’s level use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is also taught while training. However BLS has only one level recognized across the country.
CPR certified person could be a non-medical degree holder. Some students in high schools should compulsory pass the course of CPR before they graduate although they are not trained in any other health related field. Whereas BLS is generally attended by people who are associated with healthcare, they generally have basic first aid knowledge, and have understanding of medical terminologies. To conclude this both activities are interrelated, CPR support BLS and BLS assists CPR in emergency situations.