What is Bloodborne Pathogen?
A pathogen is defined as a microorganism, such as a bacterium or virus, that is able to cause disease. Some examples of bloodborne pathogens include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), malaria, Hepatitis B (HBV), and Hepatitis C. As you may be aware, these are all very serious illnesses to contract, and none of them are currently 100% curable, although scientists are making great strides on effective treatments. However, the best treatment for these diseases is to protect yourself from contracting them in the first place.
Unlike the in winter seasons, everyone warms up to the chilly autumn and warm springs. Many of us want to maximize their outdoor experience before the cold season sets in and hence the hype for hikes and walking trails. It is common to find some hunting the major parks with their dogs hence increasing the risk of bites to the public. While dogs remain the best friends to human beings, they are animals that can bite. In America, dog bites stand at 4.5 million annually with half of the victims being children aged between 5-9 years. Unlike adults, children are likely to succumb to these injuries and hence the reason 20% of the bites requires medical attention.
It is hard to predict the possibility of a dog bite; it is even harder to know when a dog is about to bite. Some dogs will only bark after the bite, while some might show some aggression before the occurrence. Nevertheless, the speed at which they execute remains a mystery to most victims, and some take a few minutes before they know what to do. When it happens far from the hospital, you need a trained first aider to take care of the injuries and hence control bleeding. Basic first aid training and certification is vital for people wishing to provide first aid in such instances.
The United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition (USLSC) prepared a 2011 report that summarizes the skills necessary for certification and employment as a lifeguard in America. The report is based on field-leading research and multiple organizations’ past experiences training highly skilled lifeguards. The standards are fully endorsed by the YMCA of the USA, the American Red Cross, and the United States Lifesaving Association (USLA). The goal of a standardized set of training standards is to increase the lifeguard’s ability to prevent injuries and death and hold all certified lifeguards to the same standard.
The USLSC report presents the skills that are most vital to lifeguard training. Based on the research studies reviewed during its preparation, the authors are able to share traits of effective lifeguards and practices that promote safe environments and decreased drowning and near drowning incidents. Lifeguard certification providers need to cover these skills and strategies in depth to ensure that their students are fully prepared to act as lifeguards.
New CPR guidelines take the emphasis off of mouth to mouth breathing and put it on chest compressions. This change makes it possible to save more lives. The next step is widespread CPR education, bringing the knowledge and ability to perform CPR during an emergency into every home and workplace. Delays between the onset of cardiac arrest and beginning CPR lower the victim’s chance of survival.
Often times, up to 75% of the time actually, cardiac arrest victims do not respond to shock treatment. The underlying cause of the cardiac arrest prevents a shock from restarting the heart. In these cases, CPR compressions deliver oxygen to the brain and vital organs, preventing brain damage and death.
Cardiac arrest can happen to anyone. There are no warning signs or symptoms. Victims never know when it will happen, where it will happen, or who will be there to see it happen. Knowing what to do, when an arrest occurs, how to provide emergency care until an ambulance arrives, and the location of the closest AED can make the difference between life and death. Thus, widespread CPR/AED certification course can save many lives.
Many people have seen the signs and heard the slogan: “CPR Can Save Lives” But just how effective is Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also called CPR? What are the side effects? And, if someone is lucky enough to survive a cardiac arrest and is resuscitated, what does that mean for that person’s long term health?
Let’s look at some numbers. According to the most recent statistics provided by the American Heart Association, 88% of cardiac arrests happen at home, where there are no doctors or nurses, which is why it is so vitally important that everyone be skilled in providing CPR. The average bystander that is skilled in CPR can triple the chance that a victim survives a cardiac arrest, however the chances of receiving CPR from a non-professional in an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest situation is only approximately 32%. Furthermore, of those victims that receive CPR outside of a hospital, less than 8% survive. According to the National Institute of Health, in a hospital setting, approximately 15% of patients are resuscitated and survive to discharge, a number that has remained relatively stable over the past three decades. (more…)
CPR is short for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is a technique used to save a person’s life that has a sudden cardiac arrest. During this procedure, a person initiates a series of steps in order to help the victim’s blood continue circulating and maintain oxygen levels in the victim’s body. The steps include breathing (“rescue breaths”) into the victim’s lungs and compressing the victim’s chest. Let’s break this down even further to better understand CPR.
The word “cardio” basically means the heart. Our heart is one of the most important organs in our bodies. The heart is a very strong muscle, found in the chest, which expands and contracts more than 60 times every minute and pumps blood, which is rich in oxygen, from the lungs to the rest of the organs in the body. If the heart stops pumping that all-important oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, tissue begins to die because the body’s vital organs are being deprived of the oxygen it needs to survive. This can lead to organ malfunction, brain damage or, in the worst case, death.
The word “pulmonary” essentially means the lungs. The lungs are as important as the heart because when you take a breath (which you do up to 25 times a minute!), you fill your lungs with much needed oxygen and that oxygen combines with sugar to fuel your body and its vital organs. Since the tissues in our body do not store much oxygen, it is essential that they remain constantly oxygenated.
The “R” in CPR is the most important letter and it means “resuscitation.” It basically means bringing someone who is apparently “dead,” back to life. It sounds more like a sci-fi movie than it really is. The human body only has a short supply of oxygen once the heart stops and the lungs are no longer receiving adequate oxygen. Once it runs out of oxygen, cell and tissue damage ensue, which can lead to brain damage and even death. When resuscitating a victim, it is important to remember that without oxygen, cell and tissue death begins between four and six minutes after being deprived of oxygen.
But, when would you possibly need to perform this life-saving technique?
A situation in which oxygen may be prevented from reaching the lungs includes:
- Heart attack
- Electric shock
- Ventricular fibrillation (in which the heart’s rhythm goes awry)
Today, CPR learning is important for everyone including the non-healthcare professionals like teachers, coaches, personal trainers, daycare workers, babysitters, construction workers, etc. By knowing how to provide CPR, one can literally save a life! And, since over 80% of people will experience sudden cardiac arrest outside a hospital setting, by providing CPR you can possibly restore up to 40% of the normal circulation that has stopped, giving your loved one, or a perfect stranger, a greater chance at survival.
Online CPR certification and re-certification is available through CPR Select’s convenient, flexible live classes. Go to http://www.mycprcertificationonline.com/ and sign up today so that you, too, can learn to save life of victim during the crucial time.
Dr. Sam Parnia, M.D. has a very unique medical specialty- resurrection. Dr. Parnia has made recent claims that he can bring patients, who have died hours before, back to life. How is this possible? Can he really bring back the “clinically dead?” What ethical and religious issues does this pose and, more importantly, would you want him to?
Parnia’s book, “The Lazarus Effect,” posits that, should someone die of reversible causes, such as a heart attack or infection, that medical interventions can be performed, post mortem, that will reverse the condition and affectively bring that person back to life. In writing this book, Parnia hoped to expand the medical community’s understanding of death and essentially convince other doctors that his methods can save the lives of up to 40,000 Americans a year without a high cost. The procedures that Parnia posits are not acceptable practices in the medical community, but Parnia is trying to change that with his new book.
Dr. Sam Parnia works at Stony Brook University Hospital in New York as the head of intensive care and was originally trained in the United Kingdom. Recently, he began to question the age-old question: what happens when the body dies? What happens to the soul, the memories…the character of that person? Through his research, he has extrapolated that, in some cases where the cause of death can be reversed, the individual can be resurrected by properly managing their death, allowing them to expire, reversing the condition that resulted in their death and then resuscitating them before brain death occurs.
The big question is how? Parnia speculates that this process is possible by properly and quickly cooling the patient’s body and monitoring oxygen levels in the brain to preserve brain cells and avoid brain damage. He theorizes that the traditional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) that is typically done when the heart stops, is only done for a short period of time, after which point doctors stop, assuming brain death. However, Parnia asserts that by advancing care and using a process called Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, or ECMO, by which the blood is removed from the body, re-oxygenated and reinserted into the body, doctors can maintain oxygenation in the blood and therefore “buy time” to correct the problem and then restart the heart. In this manner patients can be “clinically dead” for hours, cured and brought back to life so long as the level of oxygen in the brain stays above 45%
When it comes to ethics, Parnia states that he has no religious quandaries about what he is theorizing. He states that he has no religious quandaries about his theories because no one truly knows what happens when we die. He believes that the science of resurrection will allow us to get closer to the answer to the question “What happens when we die?” And more importantly, “Can we bring someone back from the dead?” In addition, this theory begs the question of how we as human beings view mortality, especially considering Parnia is speculating that the human body is getting closer to being “immortal.”
Image courtesy toe tag 7/365