The United States Lifeguard Standards Coalition (USLSC) prepared a 2011 report that summarizes the skills necessary for certification and employment as a lifeguard in America. The report is based on field-leading research and multiple organizations’ past experiences training highly skilled lifeguards. The standards are fully endorsed by the YMCA of the USA, the American Red Cross, and the United States Lifesaving Association (USLA). The goal of a standardized set of training standards is to increase the lifeguard’s ability to prevent injuries and death and hold all certified lifeguards to the same standard.
The USLSC report presents the skills that are most vital to lifeguard training. Based on the research studies reviewed during its preparation, the authors are able to share traits of effective lifeguards and practices that promote safe environments and decreased drowning and near drowning incidents. Lifeguard certification providers need to cover these skills and strategies in depth to ensure that their students are fully prepared to act as lifeguards.
New CPR guidelines take the emphasis off of mouth to mouth breathing and put it on chest compressions. This change makes it possible to save more lives. The next step is widespread CPR education, bringing the knowledge and ability to perform CPR during an emergency into every home and workplace. Delays between the onset of cardiac arrest and beginning CPR lower the victim’s chance of survival.
Often times, up to 75% of the time actually, cardiac arrest victims do not respond to shock treatment. The underlying cause of the cardiac arrest prevents a shock from restarting the heart. In these cases, CPR compressions deliver oxygen to the brain and vital organs, preventing brain damage and death.
Cardiac arrest can happen to anyone. There are no warning signs or symptoms. Victims never know when it will happen, where it will happen, or who will be there to see it happen. Knowing what to do, when an arrest occurs, how to provide emergency care until an ambulance arrives, and the location of the closest AED can make the difference between life and death. Thus, widespread CPR/AED certification course can save many lives.
Many people have seen the signs and heard the slogan: “CPR Can Save Lives” But just how effective is Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also called CPR? What are the side effects? And, if someone is lucky enough to survive a cardiac arrest and is resuscitated, what does that mean for that person’s long term health?
Let’s look at some numbers. According to the most recent statistics provided by the American Heart Association, 88% of cardiac arrests happen at home, where there are no doctors or nurses, which is why it is so vitally important that everyone be skilled in providing CPR. The average bystander that is skilled in CPR can triple the chance that a victim survives a cardiac arrest, however the chances of receiving CPR from a non-professional in an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest situation is only approximately 32%. Furthermore, of those victims that receive CPR outside of a hospital, less than 8% survive. According to the National Institute of Health, in a hospital setting, approximately 15% of patients are resuscitated and survive to discharge, a number that has remained relatively stable over the past three decades. (more…)
CPR is short for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. It is a technique used to save a person’s life that has a sudden cardiac arrest. During this procedure, a person initiates a series of steps in order to help the victim’s blood continue circulating and maintain oxygen levels in the victim’s body. The steps include breathing (“rescue breaths”) into the victim’s lungs and compressing the victim’s chest. Let’s break this down even further to better understand CPR.
The word “cardio” basically means the heart. Our heart is one of the most important organs in our bodies. The heart is a very strong muscle, found in the chest, which expands and contracts more than 60 times every minute and pumps blood, which is rich in oxygen, from the lungs to the rest of the organs in the body. If the heart stops pumping that all-important oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, tissue begins to die because the body’s vital organs are being deprived of the oxygen it needs to survive. This can lead to organ malfunction, brain damage or, in the worst case, death.
The word “pulmonary” essentially means the lungs. The lungs are as important as the heart because when you take a breath (which you do up to 25 times a minute!), you fill your lungs with much needed oxygen and that oxygen combines with sugar to fuel your body and its vital organs. Since the tissues in our body do not store much oxygen, it is essential that they remain constantly oxygenated.
The “R” in CPR is the most important letter and it means “resuscitation.” It basically means bringing someone who is apparently “dead,” back to life. It sounds more like a sci-fi movie than it really is. The human body only has a short supply of oxygen once the heart stops and the lungs are no longer receiving adequate oxygen. Once it runs out of oxygen, cell and tissue damage ensue, which can lead to brain damage and even death. When resuscitating a victim, it is important to remember that without oxygen, cell and tissue death begins between four and six minutes after being deprived of oxygen.
But, when would you possibly need to perform this life-saving technique?
A situation in which oxygen may be prevented from reaching the lungs includes:
- Heart attack
- Electric shock
- Ventricular fibrillation (in which the heart’s rhythm goes awry)
Today, CPR learning is important for everyone including the non-healthcare professionals like teachers, coaches, personal trainers, daycare workers, babysitters, construction workers, etc. By knowing how to provide CPR, one can literally save a life! And, since over 80% of people will experience sudden cardiac arrest outside a hospital setting, by providing CPR you can possibly restore up to 40% of the normal circulation that has stopped, giving your loved one, or a perfect stranger, a greater chance at survival.
Online CPR certification and re-certification is available through CPR Select’s convenient, flexible live classes. Go to http://www.mycprcertificationonline.com/ and sign up today so that you, too, can learn to save life of victim during the crucial time.
Seeing a child that has become unresponsive or stops breathing can be terrifying. And it can happen to you or a loved one. Most researchers believe that the most common place for your child to be injured is not where you think. It’s not on the football field. It’s not at school and it’s not in an automobile on a major highway. Research suggests that over 4 million childhood injuries that result in emergency room visits occur in the home every year.
Let’s take a look at some numbers about children and accidents due to choking and drowning:
- Over 10,000 children each year choke on their food and are taken to the local emergency room.
- Over 16 million children a year are hospitalized for accidental injuries, which include drowning and choking.
- In children under the age of 5, 90% of deaths occur from small foreign objects.
- In infants, the most common cause of choking is liquids.
- 19% of children under age 14 had choking-related injuries due to candy.
- 18% of children ages 1-4 had choking-related injuries due to coins.
- Drowning is the second-highest cause of accidental injury and death in children under age 14.
- Drowning occurs in the home more than 70% of the time and it occurs throughout the year.
- Drowning is NOT seasonal. It only takes one inch of water for a small child to drown.
Now let’s look at some important Child CPR Facts:
- If CPR is done correctly and performed early enough, it could save 100-200 thousand children annually.
- Taking 25 minutes out of your time could help you save a child’s life. According to recent research a person needs approximately 5 minutes training on using an AED (Automatic External Defibrillator) and just 20 minutes training in CPR to be effective.
- More than 90 thousand people are saved every year, thanks to someone who took the time to learn CPR.
Any child who is accidentally injured in a choking or drowning accident needs CPR immediately. Given all the facts, it is vitally important that everyone who has or is around children be certified in Child CPR. Are you prepared to perform CPR on your child of any of these accidents should occur in your presence?
Remember, it only takes a few minutes of training to save a child’s life. You can help lower the staggering statistics above by learning how to perform Child CPR.
Everybody should learn how to perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), almost 70% of Americans don’t know how to do CPR if somebody is experiencing a cardiac emergency or people follow wrong techniques to perform CPR. According to a survey more than 75% of cardiac arrests occur at home where patients depend on the immediate respiratory care response of their family members. Thus, knowing the correct CPR process can help saving the life of loved ones.
Below are the crucial steps used while administering CPR on an adult:
- Ask the victim, “are you ok?” to check for consciousness. Try tapping on the shoulders to stimulate the victim. If the victim is truly not breathing and requires CPR, continue with the sequence.
- Position the victim laying flat on his back. Open or remove the victim’s shirt to provide access to the chest. Kneel next to the victim and position the hands on the victim’s chest.
- The heel of one palm should be placed on the center of the chest, in line with the victim’s nipples. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first and interlock fingers.
- The fingers should point towards the victim’s nipples, with the long axis of the hand parallel to the ribs. This reduces the chance of rib fractures.
- Compression are delivered with the heel of the palm. Fingers should not make contact with the chest during compression. It may be necessary to extend or curl the fingers under to achieve this position.
- The rescuer should keep his elbows straight, shoulders over the hands, and lean over the victim. This creates a posture that allows hard and fast compression to be delivered.
- When administering compression to a small child, only one hand may be needed.
- Begin with 30 chest compression at a rate of at least 100 compression per minute. Allow the chest to completely recoil between compression. Press on the center of the chest. It may be helpful to count the compression out loud as they are administered to keep track of progress.
- For adult victims, the compression should be two inches deep.
- For child victims, the compressions should be 1/3 the chest diameter, or about two inches deep.
Following the cycle of 30 compression, administer two ventilation:
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and lifting the jaw. This lifts the victim’s tongue from the back of the throat, allowing air to pass into the lungs.
- Look into the victim’s mouth and remove any visible obstructions.
- Position the fact shield or other protective device if one is available.
- Pinch the victim’s nostrils closed to prevent air from escaping.
- The rescuer should take a deep breath and position his mouth around the victim’s mouth. The rescuer uses his lips to form a seal around the victim’s mouth to prevent air from escaping.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth until his chest rises. This takes about two seconds.
- Allow the victim’s chest to fall, about four seconds.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth a second time, forming the second ventilation of the cycle.
- The entire ventilation sequence should take less than 10 seconds.
- Alternate between 30 compressions and 2 breaths. If multiple rescuers are present, take turns administering compressions to prevent fatigue, switching every two minutes.
- Administer the AED as soon as it is available. Repeat AED use after five cycles of CPR.
If the victim’s chest does not rise during ventilations:
- Check the head position to ensure the airway is open. It may be necessary to tilt the head father back.
- Check for foreign material inside the mouth.
- Ensure that the nostrils are completely closed and that there is a tight seal around the victim’s mouth.
Alternative forms of respiration:
- If the victim has a stoma, or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing following a larynx removal, the rescuer needs to breathe into this opening instead of the mouth. It may still be necessary to hold the mouth and nostrils closed.
- If severe mouth injuries are present, preventing a tight seal from being formed around the victim’s mouth, the rescuer can breathe into the victim’s nose. Hold the mouth closed while you blow into the nose. Open the mouth to let the air out.
The more people available for these steps, the better. However, if someone is alone he/she should call 911 for emergency medical services before starting CPR treatment.
CPR Select provides you with nationally and internationally-accepted online CPR/AED First Aid certification program. The courses exist completely online, with no face-to-face requirements. All the materials are designed and approved by American Heart Association (AHA) trained doctors.
Skin burns are serious injuries that require immediate attention. The type of burn will dictate the actions when it comes to providing first aid. The larger the body area burned, the greater the disruption of the skin’s ability to properly maintain body temperature. The deeper a burn goes into the skin and underlying tissue, the more likely the risk of infection. Burn-related first aid is best performed by people who know what to do for victims.
Early first aid treatment of burns can help minimize the damage that can occur and prevent later complications. Burns require immediate attention but the wrong treatment can be more problematic than helpful. Hence, it is important to learn basic first aid for burns that will help minimize the damage and help the victim to recover successfully.
There are three categories of burns with increasing seriousness that range from mild to major:
|Symtoms||First Degree Burns||Second Degree Burns||Third Degree Burns|
|Pain||Yes||Yes||No (due to the destruction of nerve endings)|
|Depth of injury||Outer layer of skin||Under skin is affected||Skin is destroyed, muscle and bone layers may be affected|
|Appearance||Reddening & Slight Swelling||Blisters, Wet, shiny appearance||Charred, white, or grayish|
Burns can be attributed to thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation causes. Severe burns can affect more than the skin layers. Respiratory failure can be caused by severe burns. Blindness can result from burns to the eyes. A victim may go into shock from serious burns. Serious burns are a cause of death.
Treatment for Burns:
- Removing any material covering the injury, such as clothing. Cut around portions of clothing that stick to the injury.
- Flood the area with cool water for at least ten minutes. This will stop the burning and relieve pain.
- Cover the burn with a sterile dressing, free from oils and grease. (Oils and grease need to be removed before additional medical treatment is provided, causing additional and unnecessary pain and increase the chance of infection.)
- Take care to prevent foreign materials, including germs and rescuer’s fingers, from entering the burned area.
- Treat pain associated with the burn.
- Check on dressings, jewelry, and clothing to ensure that they do not become too tight if swelling increases.
- Monitor the victim for signs of shock.
- Seek additional medical attention or call 911 for serious burns.
In the case of minor thermal burns, use cool, moist gauze or bandages to treat the injury. Tape can be used to secure moist gauze over burned eyes. Use dry bandages for more serious thermal burns.
Blisters are “bubbles” that form under the skin. They are caused when tissue in the burned areas leak fluid, known as serum. Blisters caused by burns should never be broken. The skin underneath is damaged and susceptible to infection. Blisters do not necessarily need treatment beyond what is necessary to care for the burn. In some cases, the blister is located in an area that leaves it at risk for damage. If a blister breaks, or seems likely to break, cover it with a dry, non-adhesive bandage. Make sure that the bandage extends beyond the edges of the blister.
Chemical burns require additional steps during emergency treatment. Often, signs of a chemical burns will present slower than other types of burns.
- Remove any clothing contaminated with the chemical agent.
- Apply a neutralizing solution only if recommended by a physician.
- For dry chemical (alkali) burns, brush all loose powder from the victim. Then irrigate the area with generous amounts of water. Mixing alkali powders with water creates a corrosive substance.
- For other chemical burns, irrigate the area with water for 15 minutes. Potable water is preferred.
- In the case of chemical burns to the eye, have the victim lie down. Use fingertips to hold the eye open and slowly pour water into the inner corner of the eye. Continue flushing until water flows across the entire eye and clears the contaminants. Cover the eyes with moistened gauze and seek medical attention from an eye specialist. Do not use neutralizing solutions on the eyes.
Electrical burns often combine with more serious medical emergencies as a result of electrical shock.
- Cardiac and respiratory arrests are the most serious. Careful monitoring is necessary to identify and treat these issues.
- Another potential effect of electrical shock is bone fractures. The fractures are due to severe muscle contractions and require splinting.
- Often times, the entry exit points for electrical burns show signs of damage. There is often an internal, hidden trail of damage that connects the two points. A brown, coppery residue may also be present in instances of high-voltage shock. Do not confuse it for an additional injury.
- Ensure that the victim is disconnected from the source of the shock before rescuers touch the victim.
Radiation is undetectable to humans. Rescuers responding to radiation burns need to take great care to ensure that they are not subjected to the source of the radiation. If the radioactive material is still present, emergency personnel with specific protective gear need to treat the patient. In any case, rescuers should spend as little time as possible in the presence of radiation.
At CPR Select, we offer basic first aid courses online that will prepare you to provide first aid for those that injured due to burn. We not only offer training in basic first aid, but we also provide combined CPR and first aid certification and recertification. The classes that we provide can be taken at your convenience and are presented by AHA-certified instructors.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a state in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs. In addition, if the heartbeat is not restored with an electrical shock immediately, death follows within minutes. SCA accounts for more than 350,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. The Bystander CPR and AED use are crucial to survival. Thus, learning CPR is important, not only for medical professionals, but for anyone.
Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest:
- No pulse
- Chest pain
- Heart palpitations
- Lack of breathing
Chain of Survival
The Chain of Survival is a treatment method designed by the American Heart Association to treat victims with sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). In this condition, the victim’s heart twitches irregularly, stopping the flow of blood and oxygen throughout the body. SCA is fatal unless medical intervention is provided in a timely manner. The chain of Survival’s structure gives rescuers a protocol to follow, increasing the victim’s chance for survival. Each minute that passes between the onset of symptoms and intervention increases the victim’s chance of death by up to 10%.
There are five steps in the chain:
- Immediate recognition of cardiac arrest, call 911
- CPR with emphasis on chest compressions. Continue CPR until medics arrive
- Rapid defibrillation with an AED (this is necessary to restore a normal heartbeat) within minutes of the onset of symptoms
- Advanced life support, administered by trained medics
- Post-cardiac arrest care, administered in a hospital setting
Why Learn CPR/AED?
Cardiac arrests are more common, and they can happen to anyone at any time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) uses chest compressions, which move blood from the heart to the brain and internal organs, as well as mouth-to-mouth ventilation, to provide the victim with oxygen. An automated external defibrillator (AED) device designed to walk bystanders through administering CPR and defibrillating the victim if needed.
Effective bystander CPR provided immediately during the sudden cardiac arrest can double or triple a victim’s chance of survival. For this reason, doing CPR/AED certification course is extremely essential that can save the life of loved ones.
A person chokes when a foreign object becomes trapped at the back of the throat, either blocking the airway of causing a muscle spasm. Choking in adults is often caused by improperly chewed foods. In addition to choking on food, an infant or child may put a small object in their mouth that becomes trapped in the throat.
Symptoms of Choking:
- Difficulty speaking
- Trouble breathing
- Congested face turning to a gray-blue color
- Distress signs, such as pointing to the throat or grasping the neck
Treatment for a Conscious Adult Choking Victim:
- Choking requires immediate action
- Ask, “Are you choking?” If the victim can respond by speaking or coughing, there is no need to begin medical treatment. Continue to monitor the victim.
- If the victim is unable to speak or cough, begin the Heimlich Maneuver, a system of abdominal thrusts that work to clear the throat:
- The rescuer stands behind the victim, bringing his arms around the victim’s abdomen
- The rescuer will make a fist with one hand, placing his thumb against the victim’s abdomen. The opposite hand reaches around the victim and grasps the fist to provide support
- The rescuer links his hands below the victim’s rib-cage and pulls inward and upward with a strong force until the object is expelled
- Discontinue the Heimlich Maneuver when the victim begins to cough, speak, or lose consciousness
Treatment for an Unconscious Adult Choking Victim:
- Call 911
- Lay the victim face up on the floor
- Use one hand to support and position the victim’s chin. Use the thumb of that hand to depress the victim’s tongue while grasping the chin with the palm and fingers. At the same time, lift the jaw. Use the index finger of the opposite hand as a hook to clear any foreign materials inside the victim’s mouth
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and raising the chin. Attempt to ventilate the victim (as explained in the CPR guidelines). If the airway is still blocked, re-position the head and attempt to clear it again. If this is still not effective (the chest does not rise), begin compression
- The rescuer should kneel next to the victim and stack his hands over the middle of the victim’s chest. Deliver a series of 15 compression, as used for CPR. Alternate series of 15 compression with attempts to clear the victim’s airway and ventilate, as described in the earlier steps.
- Discontinue compression when the object is ejected, rescue breathing is successful, or the victim begins to breathe independently. Place the revived victim in the recovery position.
Today, learning CPR is a fast and easy process with online CPR Certification course. One can take these live classes anywhere on any device, making it simple to fit this AHA approved training into the busy schedule. Whether people are seeking initial certification or need re-certification for CPR training, CPR Select have a professional course to fit the needs. Hence, by learning adult CPR, one could potentially save a life.
There are many things an adult should be aware of, and CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is one of them. In fact, it has been found that the average 13 year is taught CPR procedures in high school or at gym, while many adults remain sadly unaware of how to administer it.
In many states in the United States of America, it has been made compulsory for children to learn CPR techniques at high school level so that by the time they graduate, they are well equipped with the skills to save a life should the need ever arise. However, adults fall into the category of the people who are more likely to require CPR. This is because adults are at a higher risk of heart attack as compared to younger children still in high school. Similarly, adults are also more likely to be around when someone else in their age group starts to suffer from a heart attack. Statistically, the chances of someone possessing a knowledge of CPR being around when another person in the vicinity begins to suffer from a heart attack is currently slightly over 1%, making it all the more necessary to learn these techniques.
One school in the United States of America has come up with an interesting technique to ensure that more and more people are familiar with the technique and know what to do when someone else suffers a heart attack in their presence. They teach their students CPR then make it compulsory for them to go home and teach someone else the technique as well. The more people the students educate, the more credits they get. It was found that on average each school student taught 2.5 others.
This “learn and teach” model is very effective since it makes young children take an active part in the learning process and gives them a sense of importance as well. It also makes them more receptive to the information passed on to them, since they know that they need to make sure that someone else knows it too. When you teach someone something, it is always the case that your own knowledge is refreshed and reinforced in a better manner, so that you learn better and are in a better position to answer questions.
For those parents who are not interested in learning CPR from their own, or someone else’s, children, it is still advisable to learn it from elsewhere as well. After all, most heart attacks happen when you least expect them to. When a heart attack happens, CPR is usually performed by other people less than 45% of the time, and that too is done by people who are not sure of what they are doing, so that the success rate is even lower. This makes it all the more necessary to learn the right procedures the right way.
If you are not interested in forking out the money to learn CPR professionally, it is advisable to purchase one of the several home instruction kits that cost less than 40$.