Dr. Sam Parnia, M.D. has a very unique medical specialty- resurrection. Dr. Parnia has made recent claims that he can bring patients, who have died hours before, back to life. How is this possible? Can he really bring back the “clinically dead?” What ethical and religious issues does this pose and, more importantly, would you want him to?
Parnia’s book, “The Lazarus Effect,” posits that, should someone die of reversible causes, such as a heart attack or infection, that medical interventions can be performed, post mortem, that will reverse the condition and affectively bring that person back to life. In writing this book, Parnia hoped to expand the medical community’s understanding of death and essentially convince other doctors that his methods can save the lives of up to 40,000 Americans a year without a high cost. The procedures that Parnia posits are not acceptable practices in the medical community, but Parnia is trying to change that with his new book.
Dr. Sam Parnia works at Stony Brook University Hospital in New York as the head of intensive care and was originally trained in the United Kingdom. Recently, he began to question the age-old question: what happens when the body dies? What happens to the soul, the memories…the character of that person? Through his research, he has extrapolated that, in some cases where the cause of death can be reversed, the individual can be resurrected by properly managing their death, allowing them to expire, reversing the condition that resulted in their death and then resuscitating them before brain death occurs.
The big question is how? Parnia speculates that this process is possible by properly and quickly cooling the patient’s body and monitoring oxygen levels in the brain to preserve brain cells and avoid brain damage. He theorizes that the traditional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) that is typically done when the heart stops, is only done for a short period of time, after which point doctors stop, assuming brain death. However, Parnia asserts that by advancing care and using a process called Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, or ECMO, by which the blood is removed from the body, re-oxygenated and reinserted into the body, doctors can maintain oxygenation in the blood and therefore “buy time” to correct the problem and then restart the heart. In this manner patients can be “clinically dead” for hours, cured and brought back to life so long as the level of oxygen in the brain stays above 45%
When it comes to ethics, Parnia states that he has no religious quandaries about what he is theorizing. He states that he has no religious quandaries about his theories because no one truly knows what happens when we die. He believes that the science of resurrection will allow us to get closer to the answer to the question “What happens when we die?” And more importantly, “Can we bring someone back from the dead?” In addition, this theory begs the question of how we as human beings view mortality, especially considering Parnia is speculating that the human body is getting closer to being “immortal.”
Image courtesy toe tag 7/365
First aid for a person on the verge of death may add a new life to the victim. There are several situations in which a precious life can be saved by giving timely first aid to the victim of an accident or a person seeking immediate CPR, or to a burnt patient. You might encounter any of these situations to yourself or some one around you on a freeway, working in factory, in a library or in a shopping mall.
So learning first aid techniques is of vital importance, you could be a hero for someone’s life if you know these techniques. You might have seen in movies that one of the actors has fallen and other is pushing his chest. Have you ever thought of it what is it? Why it’s been done? Well this method is known as CPR (Cardio pulmonary resuscitation)
CPR is an important part of first aid training and always saves lives. If you encounter a person fallen on floor in front of you having severe chest pain or unconscious he or she might be a victim of sudden cardiac arrest or choking. In situation like these if you know how to administer CPR you may save his or her life.
What immediately required is to start performing CPR on the victim. Couple your hands and keep pushing until emergency medical team reaches the victim. Although only this can’t save victim’s life in every case and the ratio of survival for such patient is very low. Because this depends on a number of factors like what was the cause of cardiac arrest? How long the patient has been unconscious on the floor? Time taken by emergency medical service to reach the patient also plays a major role in emergency situations. Still this CPR may be a hope for the dying unconscious man.
Along with this there are don’ts of first aid in various situations. There is a large no of common myths that are fallacies wide spread and are mistakes made during giving the first aid. A common mistake made for a burnt or cut situation is application of butter to the victim which is absolutely wrong. Butter in the beginning can soothe the burnt area but will later melt down and being oily it traps the heat resulting in longer burning of the tissue.
Another austere mistaken situation is sucking the venom out in case of a snake bite. Never cut that part with knife and don’t try to suck the venom out. Venom spread in seconds via blood to other parts of body and even if you manage to suck out blood immediately after the bite, even then by sucking, it will penetrate in your body. By this method you might risk your life as well.
For instance if you are certified or have some formal first aid training you can better coupe in emergency situations like these.
The American Red Cross which is also called American National Red Cross, whose prime objective is similar to the International Red Cross. The organization serves the human race regardless of any political and religious discrimination, their primary aim is it to provide relief to human race in any sort of emergency whether it’s a natural disaster or not. A broad spectrum of services is provided by the organization whether there is an emergency of food, medicine, educational assistance, or collection and delivery of blood donations. They are also assisting U.S. military in their camps across the world, serving as bridge between the military servants and their families by maintain communication. Assistance is also provided to the families of soldiers in all sort of legal and financial matter.
The American Red Cross a well-known name across the world in paramedical assistance a service with which the organization started. It has updated its first aid guide lines for victims who are conscious and face choking. According to the new recommendations before performing Heimlich maneuver you should give five back blows to the victim.
Following mentioned are the guidelines given by American Red Cross the guide lines are reproduced as it is.
If you encounter a conscious, choking individual that is coughing, encourage continued coughing. If the victim is unable to cough, speak, or breathe, complete the following:
- Send someone to call 9-1-1
- Lean person forward and give 5 back blows with heel of your hand.
- Give 5 quick abdominal thrusts by placing the thumbside of your fist against the middle of the victim’s abdomen, just above the navel. Grab your fist with the other hand.
- Repeat until the object the person is choking on is forced out and person breathes or coughs on his or her own.
To update the resident of NYC those poster in the city are no longer effective now after these new guide lines released.
CPR and BLS both are important part first aid training. I got my fingers crossed while differentiating between the two. After diving deeper down I found that both are too much coupled to each other that many people refer it as same but there do exist a slight difference among them.
To begin with CPR it is abbreviated from Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation, it is applied when a person gets a sudden cardiac arrest by this method a first aid of chest compression by hands is given to the patient to restore the cardio vascular function in combination with rescue breaths if person is not breathing properly.
BLS stands for basic life support, it’s an emergency procedure applied to a patient, it comprises of a number of technique like CPR, Shocking, and first aid treatments to sustain patient’s life until advance medical facility arrives or the person reaches hospital.
If you take a closer look at the two you’ll notice that CPR is a part of BLS, CPR is a single procedure while BLS is a set of procedures carried out in an emergency situation. CPR being a part of BLS is administered specifically to a person with no pulse and breath. BLS is applied in variety of conditions that are life threatening for the victim.
To enlarge the picture in your mind, it is understood that a BLS certified person will also be certified in CPR but it is not necessary that a CPR certified person is also certified in basic life support. To add further in this regard, when a person is clinically dead, he or she has no pulse and no breathes CPR is applied to resuscitate life, and if the revival succeeds BLS is applied immediately to sustain the resuscitated life.
These both also differ on the basis of training duration. In United States there are three levels of CPR training, CPR for Adults only, CPR for infants’ children and adults, and CPR for health care providers. At healthcare provider’s level use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is also taught while training. However BLS has only one level recognized across the country.
CPR certified person could be a non-medical degree holder. Some students in high schools should compulsory pass the course of CPR before they graduate although they are not trained in any other health related field. Whereas BLS is generally attended by people who are associated with healthcare, they generally have basic first aid knowledge, and have understanding of medical terminologies. To conclude this both activities are interrelated, CPR support BLS and BLS assists CPR in emergency situations.
As different subjects like Science and Mathematics are taught in high schools so there must be some credit hours for CPR, it will be beneficial for the students. Having knowledge of CPR will enable them tackle with a cardiac emergency. Most of the heart attack cases occur outside or away from the hospitals in that case necessary first aid is in the form of CPR to the patient and a valuable life can be saved with this knowledge.
What’s worth mentioning in this regard is Texas lawmakers are concerned about it and two people namely Rep. John Zerwas and Sen. Juan Hinojosa, have a bill HB 897/SB 261 proposed to make it compulsory. With this action, a victim of cardiac arrest would have three times more chances of survival as every teen would know the usage of automated defibrillators.
Till now efforts are made, but these are done locally by non-government organizations like Living for Zachary a memorial organization established by Karen Sarah who lost her kid due to sudden cardiac arrest. They are trying to bring AED’s (automated external defibrillator) to schools and train students but due non-compulsory training only a few of them take part in the training sessions.
Arguments given by American Heart Association are really concrete, as they are key activists behind this legislation. We are mentioning a few of them.
- Maximum cardiac emergencies take place away from hospitals in which around 90% victims face death due insufficient use of CPR and AED.
- A 30 minutes training is enough and can be an additional skill for students, they will be able to survive in cardiac emergency situations.
- There is much flexibility in the implementation of CPR training, it could be easily fit in many classes for instance in the science class or PE or most suitably in the Health class for students between grades 7 to 12.
With this regulation approval, Texas will join five states which have already regulated this CPR skill training compulsory for all graduates. These states include Alabama, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee and Vermont.
Texas State’s advocacy member of AHA Dr. Amit Khera who is also the director of UT Southwestern Preventive cardiology program says” Many people are alive today due to bystanders of all ages who were trained in CPR and willing to administer the lifesaving technique until emergency medical personnel could take over. By enacting HB 897/SB 261, Texas can create an entire generation of young adults who are not only proficient in CPR but are prepared to step in and help in an emergency situation. This legislation would require a simple, one-time 30 minute course to be implemented prior to graduation and in turn will equip generations to come with the ability to save lives. An overwhelming 79% of Texans favor this training for high school students.”
March is the month of American Red Cross which was declared by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt because of organization’s assistance and activities in World War II. Red Cross is an eminent name for providing services in both military and civilian sects of human race across the globe, since last 70 years. Red Cross bears with 70,000 Americans in disasters every year. Training of over nine million individuals for basic first aid, collection and distribution of blood which is the 40 percent of total blood supplies are worth mentioning services of the organization. Red Cross is also an active member of military installations supporting families of soldiers, soldiers and other member in a war zone around the world.
The American Red Cross has sustained its custom of assisting not only military service members but their families also. Messaging service of Red Cross operates 24/7 a week and 365 days a year, this service is a very reliable connection between service members and their families relaying all sort of urgent updates timely about births to deaths among them. This service also assists commanders in maintaining their soldiers’ leaves and causalities records accurately. Red Cross serves as a bridge among soldiers and their loved ones helping them in all their financial and legal or even emotional matters by counseling them.
In the Central Prairie area of San Antonio Texas Charlotte Henley addressing the sessions said” You’re busy ticking items off your list at the supermarket when a woman pushing a cart just ahead of you suddenly collapses. Her heart is no longer beating and she’s not breathing. What would you do? If you had training in hands-only CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation), your efforts could mean the difference between life and death” she is the lead CPR instructor of the area.
While delivering sessions on CPR she explained that earlier CPR was administered by giving two breaths and series of chest compressions. She stated “With hands-only CPR you’re only delivering chest compressions,” Henley further added” We’ve learned that chest compressions are a very effective way to help keep the vital organs alive and circulate oxygen while waiting for emergency services. They’ve simplified it significantly.”
In March Central Prairie American Red Cross has planned free sessions of hands-only CPR Blitz at the Campus Center, 333 Ninth St. S.W. Session will be every half hour between 9 AM to 2 PM on Saturday March 9. Also an annual “Heroes for the American Red Cross” campaign is aimed to collect some funds from 9th march till 31st march, and funds collected during this campaign will be utilized for disaster management and buying first aid/ emergency equipment’s like AED’s used for CPR.
You must be wondering what AED stands for. AED is automated external defibrillator which is a device used for giving first aid to heart patients.
Wikipedia defines the AED as:
“A portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmia’s of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm.”
In simple words, it is a device that lets you monitor the heart rate of a patient and if necessary give electric shocks to the patient’s heart to stabilize it. Even though the device sounds technical, it is designed simply so even a layman can use it. AED training and certification is available during first aid workshops, first responder and basic life support and CPR training programs. An AED can be used is life threatening situations where the patient’s heart is working, but its heart rate pattern is fatal.
How does AED work?
Learning to use an AED is highly intuitive and astonishingly simple. Many people have reported that it is far easier than learning CPR. Current AED courses usually last about three to four hours, include hands-on practice and help increase user competence and confidence.
An AED can be used to shock a patient’s heart back into a normal beating pattern. It is important to bear in mind that an AED only complements manual CPR in life threatening situations.
The AED protocol has seven basic steps:
- Check unresponsiveness.
Establish that the patient is unresponsive or unconscious. You can try talking to the patient, moving things in front of his eyes to check whether his pupils follow, or even gently tap the patient’s face to see if he or she responds.
- Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number (if applicable) and retrieve the AED.
Even if you have an AED with you, it’s important to notify EMS.
- Open the airway and check for breathing. If there is no breathing or breathing appears abnormal, give two slow breaths.
When the heart stops, even though there is no circulation, the victim may continue ineffective breathing motions. Ensure that the windpipe is straight and that there are no obstacles blocking the nostrils or the mouth. Also, there should be no pressure on the throat to allow for easy breathing.
- Check for a pulse. If there is no pulse, turn on the AED. A second rescuer should continue CPR until the AED is attached.
If there is no pulse, turn on the AED power. Press the “on” button or open the lid, depending on the device. If a second rescuer is available, he or she should continue CPR until the AED is attached.
- Attach the AED electrode pads.
Bare the victim’s chest and make sure it is dry. Remove the adhesive AED electrode pads from the package and attach them firmly to the chest, as illustrated on the package. It is very important to place pads correctly so that the electric current passes through the heart. One pad should be placed on the victim’s upper right chest, the other on the lower left chest. Thick chest hair should be removed prior to pad placement to ensure adequate contact.
- Analyze the heart rhythm. Make sure no one is touching the victim.
Some AEDs analyze the heart rhythm automatically. Other models prompt you to press the analyze button. Follow the AED’s prompt and call out, “Analyzing rhythm, stand clear!” or “I’m clear, you’re clear, we’re all clear!” or words to this effect. Make sure no one is touching the victim when the AED is analyzing.
If the AED indicates “shock advised” go to step 7.
If the AED indicates that the victim does not need to be shocked, check his or her pulse again. If there is no pulse, do CPR (ventilation and chest compression) for one minute, instruct onlookers to stand clear, and analyze again. Repeat this sequence of CPR and analysis every minute until help arrives.
- Press the “shock” button, if advised. Make sure no one is touching the victim.
If the AED determines that the victim does need to be shocked, it will prompt you to press the shock button. To ensure the safety of onlookers, make sure no one is touching the victim. Call out, “Shock indicated. Stand clear!” Or, say, “I’m clear, you’re clear, we’re all clear,” or words to this effect. Then, press the shock button. Sometimes, the victim will be revived after just one shock.
- After the first shock is delivered, immediately analyze again. If the AED advises that another shock is needed, press the shock button a second time.
- After the second shock is delivered, immediately analyze again. If the AED advises that another shock is needed, press the shock button a third time.
- After three shocks, if the victim still has no pulse, do CPR (ventilation and chest compression) for one minute.
Then, if there still is no pulse, give additional sets of three quick shocks, interspersed with one minute of CPR, until the AED prompts that no shock is indicated.
Note: The AED will deliver appropriate energy levels for each shock. Continue cycles of one minute of CPR followed by heart rhythm analysis and appropriate shocks until advanced help arrives.
The most important thing to remember when using an AED is to confirm that the victim is unresponsive, not breathing normally and pulseless. For all such victims in confirmed cardiac arrest, turn on the power, analyze, and the AED will coach you through the rest of the steps with visual and/or audio prompts. There is no need to be anxious. Even if you get flustered, as people often do in emergencies, the AED will be your guide.
Sources: Wikipedia, early-defib.org
There are little things in life that really restore your faith in humanity – and CPR. A little help from someone at the right time can save a life. If you don’t believe it, you’re in for a surprise! What we’re about to tell you is a story that won’t only motivate you to learn CPR but realize the importance of lending a helpful hand when you can.
This is the story of Joyce Gregory, 60, who was driving a metro bus one day when she felt her heart rate become abnormal. She did the first thing a human’s instinct told her to do. She cried for help. The bus driver, Debby Kerr, had just stepped off the bus for a few moments when she heard the cries of “I need help. My heart. My heart,” issuing from inside the bus. She rushed inside to find a regular rider, a mentally challenged man, supporting a semi-unconscious Joyce and preventing her from falling into the aisle.
Debby Kerr didn’t freeze on the spot or lose her senses. She remained calm and urgently contacted her dispatcher and informed them of the situation. The dispatcher was told to get medical aid immediately. But looking at Joyce, Kerr knew that time was running out. “Her eyes were already rolling back and her head was dropping. I knew this lady was in trouble right then and there,” Kerr recalls. She remembered that Coach Operator Donna Wright would be arriving shortly on her bus route and she dispatched an oncoming passenger to summon Wright.
Upon the arrival of Donne Wright, both her and Debby Kerr tried to revive Joyce. Kerr had not had a CPR class in 25 years and she had never practiced CPR on a real person, let alone in a pressure situation. Wright had received CPR certification four years earlier and it was her first time with a hands-on experience as well.
“I remember thinking, ‘Jesus, if you’re ever going to answer a prayer, I need your help right now,’” Kerr was praying. Both bus drivers continued their efforts of reviving Joyce but to no avail. Joyce seemed unresponsive. Soon emergency personnel arrived and took over the reviving efforts. They transported Gregory to Bronson Methodist Hospital.
“I just kept thinking, ‘My God, I’m the last one she looked at and spoke to,’” Kerr recalled. “I’m an emotional person and we were under the impression she didn’t make it. I went through the whole weekend praying.”
Obviously, the whole incident had both the bus drivers emotionally attached to Joyce’s outcome and they were eager to hear good news, though their hopes weren’t very high. “It was really disheartening to think that she had passed away that close to the holidays,” Wright added.
The following Monday, Metro Transit attempted to find out the woman’s name, and know where the agency could direct its condolences. Transit director Bill Schomisch found out that she was very much alive, in the hospital, scheduled for surgery. Kerr and Wright were very relieved at the news and shared the credit for helping give emergency aid to a rider in need.
The Oshtemo first-responders on the scene also took the time to make sure the two drivers had not been shaken or traumatised by the experience. But both Kerr and Wright admitted that they were happy to have served someone and been of some help. “The good Lord was looking after all of us; He had His hand right there,” said Wright. Kerr added, “Something good came the end of that day. We weren’t alone in that bus. I feel very blessed.”
Joyce Gregory, who loves poetry, singing and making people laugh, is recovering from triple-bypass surgery, according to her sister Michelle Gipson. They are among 14 siblings. The family plans to have Kerr and Wright to dinner and some hot-tub time. What’s more? All three of them: Gipson, Wright and Kerr are planning to continue their CPR classes because you never know – a stitch in time saves nine!
Lawmakers are considering the possibility of making CPR training compulsory for graduation from high school, so that it would not be possible to graduate from high school without a certificate of completion proving that students are not only aware of the basics of CPR, but also know how to implement it correctly.
Such a bill was brought up by the Education Committee and was recently passed for hearing. The justification behind this bill is the fact that CPR training can prove instrumental in saving lives in the case of a cardiac arrest.
Questions were taken regarding the bill while lawmakers and representatives answered questions and addressed the concerns of the committee. The primary concern was whether or not each classroom required an automated external defibrillator (AED) and it was clarified that this was not the case. However, as part of the program, extensive AED as well as CPR training would be given. This allows students to gain not just the theoretical and practical experience necessary to administer CPR, but also be familiar with the equipment that can be used.
The speaker talked about how it would only suffice to provide both written as well as practical proof of successfully completing CPR training.
This bill was supported by two individuals who had survived cardiac arrests. They mentioned how it would not have been possible for them to have survived had no one been around to administer CPR correctly and at the right time. It was also supported by another woman who had lost her young son to an unexpected cardiac arrest. She explained how his life could have been saved had someone been nearby to administer CPR at the critical time.
The movement was proposed based on the fact that the number one killer of Americans has been heart disease, while cardiac arrest is the number one reason of death among young athletes.
While education officials were more or less in agreement on the benefits of introducing the training, they were also concerned over the idea of adding on another graduation requirement for, as they felt, already overburdened students. They felt that students were already struggling to complete the already existing requirements of the high school system, and adding on another requirement would make things difficult for them. They recommended that CPR training should not be made compulsory. Rather it should only be voluntary and students should be able to obtain the training outside the environment of their respective schools. There were also keen on finding out how much implementation of the bill would cost the state. This is of special concern in a situation when the education sector is already suffering as a result of state budget cuts in education funding.
As of right now, it is expected that the bill will kick in for those expected to graduate in 2016. Next week, however, the committee will be taking further action to explore the implementation of the bill.
Twitter is a widely employed social website that serves for interaction within masses and people share their personal opinions, feelings and activities like having dinner or walking alone in rain or being divorced but over the past few years, Twitter is being used for much meliorate purposes. People are turning towards finding and posting information about certain cardinal ailments and health conditions. Researchers have found more than 15,000 tweets or messages on the social website over a month that included information about Resuscitation and Cardiac arrest. It is exciting to find people turning to twitter for Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) information and meaningfully discussing it.
Twitter has previously been used by researchers and other organizations for public health matters and it is quickly transforming into educational tool for health care professionals and educationists allowing them to respond to the public queries and finding ways of public education about CPR and other important health issues. Thousands of messages are being circulated already containing specific information about CPR only, taking into account education, research and news events.
The research study’s lead author Raina Merchant who also is a professor at the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania stated,
“From a science standpoint, we wanted to know if we can reliably find information on a public health topic, or is (Twitter) just a place where people describe what they ate that day,”
Regarding such outbreaks, “Right now, it’s mostly an educational tool for public health officials or professionals,” said Dr. Gunther Eysenbach, editor and publisher of the Journal of Medical Internet Research and of the University Health Network in Toronto.
The researchers for the study created a Twitter search for key items such as CPR, AED (automated external defibrillators), resuscitation and sudden death. Among the messages circulated regarding cardiac arrest and resuscitation, a few were about specific cardiac events but a large percentage was related to methods of performing CPR and AED.
“I think the pilot (study) illustrated for us that there is an opportunity to potentially provide research and information for people in real time about cardiac arrest and resuscitation,” Said Merchant.
She also figured,
“I can imagine in the future we will see systems that would automatically respond to tweets of individual users. Twitter is a really powerful tool, and we’re just beginning to understand its abilities. “People should join the conversation and tweet. And healthcare providers should really be part of that conversation,”
There are about 500 million accounts on twitter and there is a need of developing a sound method by which the tweets can be filtered allowing the healthcare practitioners to respond to peoples’ question in quick time thus opening new and convenient ways of public education.