Everybody should learn how to perform Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), almost 70% of Americans don’t know how to do CPR if somebody is experiencing a cardiac emergency or people follow wrong techniques to perform CPR. According to a survey more than 75% of cardiac arrests occur at home where patients depend on the immediate respiratory care response of their family members. Thus, knowing the correct CPR process can help saving the life of loved ones.
Below are the crucial steps used while administering CPR on an adult:
- Ask the victim, “are you ok?” to check for consciousness. Try tapping on the shoulders to stimulate the victim. If the victim is truly not breathing and requires CPR, continue with the sequence.
- Position the victim laying flat on his back. Open or remove the victim’s shirt to provide access to the chest. Kneel next to the victim and position the hands on the victim’s chest.
- The heel of one palm should be placed on the center of the chest, in line with the victim’s nipples. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first and interlock fingers.
- The fingers should point towards the victim’s nipples, with the long axis of the hand parallel to the ribs. This reduces the chance of rib fractures.
- Compression are delivered with the heel of the palm. Fingers should not make contact with the chest during compression. It may be necessary to extend or curl the fingers under to achieve this position.
- The rescuer should keep his elbows straight, shoulders over the hands, and lean over the victim. This creates a posture that allows hard and fast compression to be delivered.
- When administering compression to a small child, only one hand may be needed.
- Begin with 30 chest compression at a rate of at least 100 compression per minute. Allow the chest to completely recoil between compression. Press on the center of the chest. It may be helpful to count the compression out loud as they are administered to keep track of progress.
- For adult victims, the compression should be two inches deep.
- For child victims, the compressions should be 1/3 the chest diameter, or about two inches deep.
Following the cycle of 30 compression, administer two ventilation:
- Open the victim’s airway by tilting the head back and lifting the jaw. This lifts the victim’s tongue from the back of the throat, allowing air to pass into the lungs.
- Look into the victim’s mouth and remove any visible obstructions.
- Position the fact shield or other protective device if one is available.
- Pinch the victim’s nostrils closed to prevent air from escaping.
- The rescuer should take a deep breath and position his mouth around the victim’s mouth. The rescuer uses his lips to form a seal around the victim’s mouth to prevent air from escaping.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth until his chest rises. This takes about two seconds.
- Allow the victim’s chest to fall, about four seconds.
- Blow into the victim’s mouth a second time, forming the second ventilation of the cycle.
- The entire ventilation sequence should take less than 10 seconds.
- Alternate between 30 compressions and 2 breaths. If multiple rescuers are present, take turns administering compressions to prevent fatigue, switching every two minutes.
- Administer the AED as soon as it is available. Repeat AED use after five cycles of CPR.
If the victim’s chest does not rise during ventilations:
- Check the head position to ensure the airway is open. It may be necessary to tilt the head father back.
- Check for foreign material inside the mouth.
- Ensure that the nostrils are completely closed and that there is a tight seal around the victim’s mouth.
Alternative forms of respiration:
- If the victim has a stoma, or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing following a larynx removal, the rescuer needs to breathe into this opening instead of the mouth. It may still be necessary to hold the mouth and nostrils closed.
- If severe mouth injuries are present, preventing a tight seal from being formed around the victim’s mouth, the rescuer can breathe into the victim’s nose. Hold the mouth closed while you blow into the nose. Open the mouth to let the air out.
The more people available for these steps, the better. However, if someone is alone he/she should call 911 for emergency medical services before starting CPR treatment.
CPR Select provides you with nationally and internationally-accepted online CPR/AED First Aid certification program. The courses exist completely online, with no face-to-face requirements. All the materials are designed and approved by American Heart Association (AHA) trained doctors.
A person chokes when a foreign object becomes trapped at the back of the throat, either blocking the airway of causing a muscle spasm. Choking in adults is often caused by improperly chewed foods. In addition to choking on food, an infant or child may put a small object in their mouth that becomes trapped in the throat.
Symptoms of Choking:
- Difficulty speaking
- Trouble breathing
- Congested face turning to a gray-blue color
- Distress signs, such as pointing to the throat or grasping the neck
CPR or cardio pulmonary resuscitation is a very common and important method of first aid methodologies for saving a life if you found someone collapsed on floor unconscious. It is important to learn CPR because with only a very little effort you can save a life. Good Samaritan Law also supports the effort of saving someone’s life.
Measures are now taken across the United States to train as many people as possible for administering CPR. This leads to mandatory CPR training in every schools and few states in the country have already made it compulsory. Now it’s Minnesota on its way for legislating law for compulsory CPR training in schools. What made this legislation possible is the story of a woman Jamie LaLonde who survived heart attack.
While telling her story how she became a volunteer activist for mandatory CPR training and certification at schools she said” I remember getting ready for work, and that’s the last thing I remember,” while trying to memorize what happened the day she was victimized by cardiac arrest. “The rest people have told me about.”
Two year back she used to work at a clothing store in the Mall of America. She was about to leave for a break when she suddenly collapsed with a cardiac arrest. She told further that she caters young people on the store knew nothing what to do in such a situation. “They were all 16 to 18-years-old, and not one person around me knew what to do when I fell,” she told.
Within 5 minutes a mall’s security personnel sneaked into the shop and administered CPR. EMS team arrived and shocked her twice with AED and fortunately LaLonde survived. After spending two days in coma when she opened her eyes she had a new aim of life.
She was lucky that her voice reached many and soon she got support Senator Dan Hall (R-Burnsville). He said in the support of this movement turned into legislation “This would be a huge benefit for our society to have bystanders who are trained in CPR,”
Mr. Hall is now trying for the approval of LaLonde’s bill. He said ” We are asking for 30 minutes of CPR training for any child in Minnesota that goes through seventh grade through twelfth grade,”
Hall told that the bill was formulated by AHA (American Heart Association) and the American Red Cross and they will train kids at school voluntarily charging no money from the schools, he said “It’s a small thing for a huge benefit,”
LaLonde has recovered completely. Her aim is now to be a paramedic and going to college soon but she said she dreams of her bill becoming a law. “I really think it will make a huge difference, especially among the young people, It’s teaching young people how to save people.”
CPR and BLS both are important part first aid training. I got my fingers crossed while differentiating between the two. After diving deeper down I found that both are too much coupled to each other that many people refer it as same but there do exist a slight difference among them.
To begin with CPR it is abbreviated from Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation, it is applied when a person gets a sudden cardiac arrest by this method a first aid of chest compression by hands is given to the patient to restore the cardio vascular function in combination with rescue breaths if person is not breathing properly.
BLS stands for basic life support, it’s an emergency procedure applied to a patient, it comprises of a number of technique like CPR, Shocking, and first aid treatments to sustain patient’s life until advance medical facility arrives or the person reaches hospital.
If you take a closer look at the two you’ll notice that CPR is a part of BLS, CPR is a single procedure while BLS is a set of procedures carried out in an emergency situation. CPR being a part of BLS is administered specifically to a person with no pulse and breath. BLS is applied in variety of conditions that are life threatening for the victim.
To enlarge the picture in your mind, it is understood that a BLS certified person will also be certified in CPR but it is not necessary that a CPR certified person is also certified in basic life support. To add further in this regard, when a person is clinically dead, he or she has no pulse and no breathes CPR is applied to resuscitate life, and if the revival succeeds BLS is applied immediately to sustain the resuscitated life.
These both also differ on the basis of training duration. In United States there are three levels of CPR training, CPR for Adults only, CPR for infants’ children and adults, and CPR for health care providers. At healthcare provider’s level use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) is also taught while training. However BLS has only one level recognized across the country.
CPR certified person could be a non-medical degree holder. Some students in high schools should compulsory pass the course of CPR before they graduate although they are not trained in any other health related field. Whereas BLS is generally attended by people who are associated with healthcare, they generally have basic first aid knowledge, and have understanding of medical terminologies. To conclude this both activities are interrelated, CPR support BLS and BLS assists CPR in emergency situations.
As different subjects like Science and Mathematics are taught in high schools so there must be some credit hours for CPR, it will be beneficial for the students. Having knowledge of CPR will enable them tackle with a cardiac emergency. Most of the heart attack cases occur outside or away from the hospitals in that case necessary first aid is in the form of CPR to the patient and a valuable life can be saved with this knowledge.
What’s worth mentioning in this regard is Texas lawmakers are concerned about it and two people namely Rep. John Zerwas and Sen. Juan Hinojosa, have a bill HB 897/SB 261 proposed to make it compulsory. With this action, a victim of cardiac arrest would have three times more chances of survival as every teen would know the usage of automated defibrillators.
Till now efforts are made, but these are done locally by non-government organizations like Living for Zachary a memorial organization established by Karen Sarah who lost her kid due to sudden cardiac arrest. They are trying to bring AED’s (automated external defibrillator) to schools and train students but due non-compulsory training only a few of them take part in the training sessions.
Arguments given by American Heart Association are really concrete, as they are key activists behind this legislation. We are mentioning a few of them.
- Maximum cardiac emergencies take place away from hospitals in which around 90% victims face death due insufficient use of CPR and AED.
- A 30 minutes training is enough and can be an additional skill for students, they will be able to survive in cardiac emergency situations.
- There is much flexibility in the implementation of CPR training, it could be easily fit in many classes for instance in the science class or PE or most suitably in the Health class for students between grades 7 to 12.
With this regulation approval, Texas will join five states which have already regulated this CPR skill training compulsory for all graduates. These states include Alabama, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee and Vermont.
Texas State’s advocacy member of AHA Dr. Amit Khera who is also the director of UT Southwestern Preventive cardiology program says” Many people are alive today due to bystanders of all ages who were trained in CPR and willing to administer the lifesaving technique until emergency medical personnel could take over. By enacting HB 897/SB 261, Texas can create an entire generation of young adults who are not only proficient in CPR but are prepared to step in and help in an emergency situation. This legislation would require a simple, one-time 30 minute course to be implemented prior to graduation and in turn will equip generations to come with the ability to save lives. An overwhelming 79% of Texans favor this training for high school students.”