What does BVM stand for, and How does it Work?
BVM stands for Bag Valve Mask. It is a handheld device used in emergency medicine to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately. BVM is also known as a manual resuscitator or Ambu bag. It is operated by squeezing the bag manually to force air into the patient's lungs and then releasing the bag to allow the patient to exhale. The device can be used by a trained healthcare provider or first responder and is an important tool in managing respiratory emergencies.
What is the purpose of a Bag Valve Mask?
A bag mask device is used in emergency medicine to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately. The device consists of a flexible bag attached to a face mask placed over the patient's mouth and nose.
The bag mask device manually delivers air and/or oxygen to a patient's lungs. It is typically used in emergencies, such as cardiac arrest, respiratory distress, or trauma, when a patient cannot breathe adequately. The bag mask device can provide rapid and effective ventilation to maintain oxygenation and prevent hypoxia until more advanced airway management can be provided, such as intubation or placement of a supraglottic airway device.
What is a BVM Ventilation?
Bag mask ventilation is a manual resuscitator or ventilation technique that allows patients oxygenation until a more definitive airway can be established. It is also used in cases where an oropharyngeal airway, endotracheal tube, or other definitive airway control is impossible.
You can use bag-mask ventilation in the field, ambulance, helicopter, the emergency department, the intensive care unit, and the operating room. This may be the only type of ventilator that can work during disasters because they do not require electricity. However, if you use it incorrectly, manual ventilation using BVM can result in serious death or injury. Excessive ventilation may also lead to gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration.
How does a Bag Valve Mask compare to a traditional manual resuscitator?
A BVM and a traditional manual resuscitator are important medical devices that provide positive-pressure ventilation to patients in respiratory distress. The choice of device will depend on the specific clinical situation and the provider's expertise and training.
Compared to a traditional manual resuscitator, a BVM is more versatile and can be used in a wider range of clinical situations. It is also easier to use, as it does not require the provider to insert an airway device into the patient's airway. Additionally, a BVM can be used to deliver supplemental oxygen, improving oxygenation in patients with respiratory distress.
However, a traditional manual resuscitator is still preferred in certain clinical situations, such as during surgery or when advanced airway management techniques are required. It also requires additional expertise and training to use effectively, as inserting an airway device can be a more complex procedure.
How much oxygen does a bag valve mask deliver?
A bag valve mask (BVM) typically delivers 500 to 600 milliliters of air per breath. The amount of air delivered can vary depending on the size and type of BVM being used, as well as the technique used by the rescuer.
How much oxygen does ambu bag deliver?
The Ambu bag delivers a maximum FiO2 of 95%, depending on the flow rate and the patient's breathing pattern. The mask must be sealed tightly around the patient's face to ensure that no air escapes through the sides, and the reservoir bag must be full of oxygen for it to work properly.
How much tidal volume is in ambu bag?
The Ambu bag has a standard tidal volume of 500 to 600 milliliters, depending on the size and type of bag being used. This means that when the bag is squeezed, it will deliver roughly 500-600 ml of air per breath. The amount of air delivered can vary depending on the technique used by the rescuer and other factors such as the oxygen flow rate and patient's breathing pattern.
How often do you squeeze ambu bag?
The recommended squeeze time for a bag valve mask (BVM) is 1 second per breath. This means that you should squeeze the bag for 1 second each time you give a breath to the patient. The frequency of squeezing will depend on the patient's breathing rate, but typically it should be done at least 10-12 times per minute. It is important to ensure that the bag is squeezed slowly and evenly to ensure an even flow of air.
How does a Bag Valve Mask differ from a face mask with oxygen?
A bag valve mask (BVM) differs from a face mask with oxygen in that it is not just used to provide supplemental oxygen. BVMs can also be used to ventilate the patient, meaning they can deliver air and oxygen directly into the lungs. This makes them ideal for emergency respiratory situations, as they allow for more precise control of the amount of air and oxygen being delivered to the patient. Face masks with oxygen are mainly used to provide supplemental oxygen and do not typically have the capability to ventilate.
How should you give breaths with a mask?
When giving breaths with a mask, it is important to ensure the mask is properly sealed around the patient's face. This will help prevent any air from escaping out the sides of the mask, which can decrease oxygen delivery. Once the mask is sealed, you should slowly and evenly squeeze the bag valve mask (BVM) for 1 second per breath. The frequency of squeezing should be done at least 10-12 times per minute, depending on the patient's breathing rate.
How to ambu-bag a patient?
When ambu-bagging a patient, it is important to ensure that the mask is sealed tightly around the patient's face. This will help prevent any air from escaping out the sides of the mask, which can decrease oxygen delivery. Once the mask is sealed, you should slowly and evenly squeeze the bag valve mask (BVM) for 1 second per breath. The frequency of squeezing should be done at least 10-12 times per minute, depending on the patient's breathing rate. The oxygen flow rate should also be set to 15 liters per minute or higher to ensure a FiO2 of 100%. It is important to check the bag reservoir and refill it as necessary periodically.
How is a Bag Valve Mask used in basic life support?
In basic life support, a bag valve mask (BVM) can be used to provide rescue breaths and oxygenation for an unresponsive patient who is not breathing. It is important to note that the BVM should only be used if the rescuer has been properly trained in its use and understands how to seal it around the patient's face.
What is the role of a Bag Valve Mask in advanced life support?
The bag valve mask (BVM) plays an important role in advanced life support, as it can provide a reliable and effective way to deliver oxygen and ventilate a patient in critical situations. The BVM is often used when other methods of ventilation are not available or appropriate, such as during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during an emergency intubation.
What is the role of a Bag Valve Mask in airway management?
The bag valve mask (BVM) plays an important role in airway management, providing a means of ventilation when other methods are not possible or feasible. The BVM can be used to provide positive pressure ventilation, which helps to keep the airways open and reduce the risk of further collapse or obstruction. Additionally, the BVM can be used to deliver oxygen directly into the lungs, providing supplemental oxygen in cases of hypoxia.
How is a Bag Valve Mask used in resuscitation?
Bag Valve Mask (BVM) ventilation is used in resuscitation to provide oxygen to patients who are not breathing or have inadequate breathing. It is a simple and effective method of airway management that healthcare workers with professional experience can perform.
What is the correct volume of air to deliver during BVM ventilation?
The correct volume of air to be delivered during bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation depends on the age of the patient. Generally, for an adult or child older than 8 years old, the volume should be between 500 and 600 milliliters. For children between 1 and 8 years old, the volume should be between 400 and 450 milliliters. For infants, the volume should be between 100 and 200 milliliters. It is important to adjust the bag size accordingly to ensure the correct air volume is delivered during ventilation.
The BVM resuscitator is available in a full range of sizes:
- Adult (1.5 liters)
- Adult (1 liter)
- Pediatric (550ml)
- Infant (280ml)
What is the size of a Bag Valve Mask for adults?
The size of a bag valve mask (BVM) for adults typically ranges from adult small to adult large. Adult small is recommended for patients who weigh less than 90 lbs, while adult large is suitable for those weighing over 90 lbs. The size of the BVM should be adjusted accordingly to ensure that it fits securely and snugly over the patient's face.
What is the size of a Bag Valve Mask for children?
The size of a bag valve mask (BVM) for children typically ranges from small to large. Child small is recommended for patients who weigh less than 50 lbs, while child large is suitable for those weighing over 50 lbs. The size of the BVM should be adjusted accordingly to ensure that it fits securely and snugly over the patient's face. Adjusting the head strap and chin support to ensure an effective seal is also important.
What is the size of a Bag Valve Mask for infants?
The size of a bag valve mask (BVM) for infants typically ranges from infant small to infant large. Infant small is recommended for patients who weigh less than 15 lbs, while infant large is suitable for those weighing over 15 lbs. It is important to adjust the head strap and chin support to ensure an effective seal on the patient's face. Additionally, due to the smaller size of the infant BVM, the provider should be sure to reduce the amount of air delivered with each squeeze to ensure that only a small volume is delivered.
How much tidal volume must you provide with a bag-mask device to produce visible chest rise?
In order to produce visible chest rise with a bag-mask device, the tidal volume must be at least 500 mL for an adult patient. This amount of tidal volume should be adjusted according to the size and needs of the individual patient. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the mask is securely placed over the patient’s nose and mouth and that you provide adequate ventilation by squeezing the bag with sufficient force to produce a visible chest rise.
What are the different types of Bag Valve Masks available?
There are several different types of bag valve masks (BVMs) available, each designed to meet specific needs and requirements. These include non-rebreather BVMs, which provide oxygen without allowing the patient to exhale carbon dioxide back into the mask; medium concentration BVMs, which provide a higher concentration of oxygen than non-rebreathers; high concentration BVMs , which offer the highest concentration of oxygen; and semi-closed BVMs, which allow for the addition of other gases such as nitrous oxide.
What are the components of a Bag-Valve Mask?
BVM is a manual resuscitator that consists of a self-inflating bag, oneway valve, mask, and an oxygen reservoir. There are no parts made from metal, no screws, no washers, springs, or anything else of a complicated nature. The main components are:
- A self-inflating bag with two valves.
- An inlet port for fresh gas.
- An outlet port that ventilates the patient and expires that ventilation.
What is the significance of a one-way valve on a Bag Valve Mask?
The one-way valve on a bag valve mask (BVM) is an important safety feature which prevents exhaled air from entering the mask and contaminating the oxygen supply. This helps to ensure that only fresh, uncontaminated oxygen is delivered to the patient. Additionally, the one-way valve helps to reduce the risk of backflow of exhaled air into the lungs, which can cause further respiratory distress.
How to connect ambu bag to an et tube?
When connecting the bag valve mask (BVM) to an endotracheal tube (ETT), it is important to first ensure that the oxygen is turned on and set to the proper flow rate. Once this is done, you should attach the BVM to the ETT using a direct adapter or a tee adapter. The oxygen tubing should be connected securely at both ends and there should not be any kinks in the tubing. Once everything is connected properly, you should slowly and evenly squeeze the bag to ensure that it is inflating properly. Additionally, it may be necessary to rotate the head of the patient while bagging in order to ensure proper ventilation.
How to connect bvm to oxygen?
To connect the bag valve mask (BVM) to an oxygen source, you should first ensure that the oxygen is turned on and set to the proper flow rate. Once this is done, you should attach the BVM directly to the oxygen source using a non-rebreather or nasal cannula. The oxygen tubing should be connected securely at both ends and there should not be any kinks in the tubing. Once everything is connected properly, you should slowly and evenly squeeze the bag to ensure that it is inflating properly.
How does a Bag Valve Mask provide positive pressure ventilation?
A bag valve mask (BVM) can provide positive pressure ventilation by delivering air and oxygen directly into the lungs through a tight-fitting mask. This is done by squeezing the attached bag, which forces air and oxygen into the patient's lungs. This ventilation helps keep the airways open and prevent further collapse or obstruction. It can also help improve oxygen levels in the blood and reduce the risk of further respiratory distress.
How is the pressure controlled with a Bag Valve Mask?
The pressure delivered by a bag valve mask (BVM) can be controlled by adjusting the size of the bag and the squeezing rate. The larger the bag, the higher the pressure will be, so it is important to adjust the size of the bag accordingly to meet the patient’s needs. Additionally, increasing or decreasing the squeezing rate can also affect how much pressure is delivered with each breath.
How does a peep valve work?
The PEEP valve works by increasing the pressure in the patient's airways during expiration, which helps to keep the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs) open and prevent them from collapsing. This can improve oxygenation and reduce the work of breathing for the patient.
How is the oxygen flow rate adjusted on a Bag Valve Mask?
The oxygen flow rate on a bag valve mask (BVM) is adjusted by regulating the size of the opening in the oxygen reservoir. By adjusting this opening, more or less air and oxygen can be delivered to the patient depending on their needs. Additionally, in some BVMs, a valve may be used to adjust the amount of flow coming out of the mask. This allows for more precise control of the oxygen flow rate to the patient.
Who can administer a Bag Valve Mask Ventilation?
BVM is mainly used in prehospital settings to ventilate patients in respiratory failure/respiratory distress and cardiac arrest. Manual ventilation has to be performed by healthcare workers with professional experience who are regularly trained in various medical emergencies like respiratory arrest. It's easier and more effective if two responders are doing the ventilation. The techniques described in this article should be practiced to guarantee successful resuscitation.
What is the recommended frequency of ventilation with a Bag Valve Mask?
The recommended ventilation frequency with a bag valve mask (BVM) will depend on the patient's condition and medical needs. Generally, it is advised to deliver one breath every 6-8 seconds in order to provide adequate oxygenation and ventilation. Additionally, the rate can be adjusted based on the patient's response, such as increasing the rate in cases of respiratory distress.
Emergency Situations Where Bag Valve Mask Ventilation is Needed
For the emergency medical services team, a manual resuscitator using bag-mask ventilation is the only option for airway management. In addition, it is the best option for prehospital airway support in the pediatric population. BVM ventilation is also appropriate for elective ventilation in the operating room when intubation is not required, but it is now often replaced in this setting by the laryngeal mask airway.
BVM ventilation is indicated in the following conditions:
- Respiratory failure/respiratory distress
- Failed intubation or insertion of an artificial ventilation tube into the trachea
- Patients who are undergoing anesthesia for elective surgical procedures
- Apnea (slowed or stopped breathing)
How much tidal volume must you provide with a bag mask device to produce visible chest rise for an adult patient in respiratory arrest?
In order to produce visible chest rise with a bag-mask device for an adult patient in respiratory arrest, the tidal volume must be at least 500 mL. This amount of tidal volume should be adjusted according to the size and needs of the individual patient. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the mask is securely placed over the patient’s nose and mouth and that you provide adequate ventilation by squeezing the bag with sufficient force to produce a visible chest rise. It is also important to ensure that the patient’s head is in a neutral position and that you are using positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at a rate of 10-12 breaths per minute.
How to bag an intubated patient?
When bagging an intubated patient, it is important to ensure that the mask is sealed tightly around the patient's face. This will help prevent any air from escaping out the sides of the mask, which can decrease oxygen delivery. Once the mask is sealed, you should slowly and evenly squeeze the bag valve mask (BVM) for 1 second per breath. The frequency of squeezing should be done at least 10-12 times per minute, depending on the patient's breathing rate. The oxygen flow rate should also be set to 15 liters per minute or higher to ensure a FiO2 of 100%. It is important to check the ventilator settings and make any necessary adjustments periodically. Additionally, it may be necessary to rotate the head of the patient while bagging to ensure proper ventilation.
How to check if BVM is working?
It is important to check the functionality of the bag valve mask (BVM) before using it to provide ventilation to a patient. Here are the steps to check if a BVM is working properly:
- Check the bag for any cracks, holes, or leaks. Make sure that the bag is properly inflated and not damaged.
- Attach the face mask to the bag and ensure it fits snugly over the patient's nose and mouth.
- Squeeze the bag with one hand to force air into the mask. Make sure that the bag inflates and then deflates completely when released.
- Listen and feel for any air escaping from the mask or bag.
- Check that the patient's chest rises and falls with each ventilation, indicating that air is being delivered to the lungs.
- If the BVM has an oxygen reservoir, ensure that it is properly attached and functioning.
- Check the expiration port or valve to ensure that it is clear and unobstructed.
- If using an advanced airway device, such as an endotracheal tube, confirm the proper placement and function of the device.
By following these steps, you can ensure that the BVM is working properly and ready to use in an emergency situation. If any issues or malfunctions are detected during the check, the device should be removed from service and replaced with a functional unit.
What are the indications for using a Bag Valve Mask?
A bag valve mask (BVM) is indicated in cases of respiratory distress, such as difficulty breathing or apnea. It is also used in emergency situations where ventilation is needed, including cardiac arrest and severe asthma attacks. Additionally, BVMs can be used to provide supplemental oxygen for patients who are unable to maintain their own airway, such as those with unconsciousness or paralysis.
Can a Bag Valve Mask be used on any patient?
No, a bag valve mask (BVM) should not be used on any patient without first assessing their condition and verifying that the BVM is appropriate for their medical needs. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the BVM fits correctly and that all components are in good working order before use. Proper training is also necessary in order to safely and effectively use a BVM on any patient.
Can you ventilate a conscious patient?
Yes, you can use a bag valve mask (BVM) on a conscious patient. However, it is important to ensure that the patient can maintain an adequate seal around the mask and that they can cooperate with the ventilation. If not, then other methods of ventilation may be more appropriate.
How to know if BVM Ventilation is effective?
You can determine the effectiveness of BVM ventilation by watching if the patient's chest will rise and fall and feeling the resistance of the patient's lungs as they expand. If the ventilation is effective, you will also hear and feel the air escape as the patient exhales.
If the patient is a cardiac arrest victim, your breaths do not need to be synchronized to chest compressions. But ensure that you provide the right number of breaths per minute for the patient's age.
For rescue breathing in adults:
- 10-12 respirations per minute (every 5 to 6 seconds)
- Achieve chest rise, using up to 500 ml of attached oxygen, regardless of established airway adjunct.
- Do not hyperventilate
For rescue breathing in pediatrics:
- 20-30 respirations per minute (every 2 to 3 seconds)
- Achieve chest rise and fall
- Do not hyperventilate
For cardiac arrest, follow established ratios of:
- Adult without an advanced airway: 30 compressions to 2 breaths
- Pediatric without an advanced airway: 30 compressions to 2 breaths for a single rescuer (15:2 for two rescuers)
- Adult with an advanced airway: Continuous compressions between 100-120 bpm and one breath every 6 seconds (10 breaths per minute)
Positioning for Bag Valve Mask Ventilation
Place the patient in a proper sniffing posture to ensure an excellent nasal breathing pattern. This position aligns the external auditory canal with the sternum. You may need folded towels to achieve the sniffing position. For obese, you may need a commercial ramp device to elevate their shoulders and neck sufficiently. If there is a concern for cervical spine injury:
- Position the patient supine.
- Stand at the head of the stretcher.
- Avoid moving the neck.
- To open the upper airway manually, use the jaw-thrust or chin lift without the head tilt maneuver.
Sizing of face mask: Face mask sizing is performed by first checking that the mask covers the bridge of the nose and then correctly seats on the chin, ensuring that the lower lip is inside the mask.
How to maintain a tight seal?
To maintain a tight seal, you must perform a C & E hold: With the mask on the patient's face, place your middle, ring and little fingers on the jawbone (forming E) and pull upwards. Concurrently, position your thumb on the bridge of the nose and your index finger below the mask connection and on the chin to make a seal.
- The index finger placement helps control the mask's angle and pressure on the patient's face.
- Since the head tends to move during ventilation and provided treatment like Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, the index finger facilitates the continuous optimization of the mask seal on a breath-to-breath basis.
- Don't push the mask against the patient's face, which forces the patient's head into flexion and airway obstruction.
- Conversely, pull the patient's face into the mask by pulling up on the jaw while pressing the mask down on the bridge of the nose using your thumb. This action extends the head, thus opening the airway while maintaining a better seal.
- When holding the chin, grasp the jawbone, NOT the soft tissue. The soft tissue will push the tongue up against the hard palate, causing airway obstruction.
How to Use BVM Ventilation?
Manual ventilation using a bag mask can be done with one person or two, but two-person BVM ventilation is easier and more effective. Your goal is to achieve a tight seal, which usually requires two hands on the mask.
Two-person Bag Valve Mask Ventilation technique
If there are two responders, the experienced emergency medical personnel will handle the mask because maintaining a proper mask seal is the most challenging task. Then, the second responder will squeeze the bag. Remember that excessive ventilation may lead to gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration.
- The first responder will stand at the head of the stretcher and the 2nd responder to the side.
- Using two hands, the first responder will hold the mask between the thumbs and index fingers on either side of the connector stem.
- The first responder will place the nasal portion of the bag valve mask over the patient's nose high enough to cover the bridge without air leaks. Then lower the mask over the chin and allow it to seal along with the two malar eminences.
- Achieve a patent airway and a proper seal by covering the bridge of the nose, the two malar eminences, and the lower lip. To help create a tighter seal, you may stretch the internal portion of the BVM before placing it over the nose and mouth.
- Once the first responder has achieved a tight and proper seal on the patient's face, the second responder attaches the airway device to the mask and begins ventilation.
- Responder 2 will squeeze the bag smoothly just until the chest starts to rise.
- Continue the bag-mask ventilation until either a definitive airway or spontaneous adequate ventilation is achieved.
One-person Bag Valve Mask Ventilation technique
- Place the BVM between your thumb and index finger, wrapped around the stem with one hand.
- Do not place your hand or the mask on the patient's eyes.
- Place the nasal portion of the mask over the nose. Then lower the mask over the patient's mouth.
- Achieve a patent airway and a proper seal by covering the nose bridge, the two malar eminences, and the mandibular alveolar ridged by the mask.
- After achieving a tight seal, start ventilating using your other hand.
- Squeeze the bag smoothly just until the chest starts to rise.
- Continue the bag-mask ventilation until either a definitive airway or spontaneous adequate ventilation is achieved.
How do you open the airway for breaths of a single rescuer is present?
When a single rescuer is present, it is important to open the airway before providing breaths. To do this, the rescuer should tilt the head back and lift the chin to create an open air flow space. If needed, the rescuer can also use their fingers to gently sweep away any secretions or foreign objects from the patient’s mouth that may be blocking the airway.
How are breaths delivered using a bag-mask device for infants?
When using a bag-mask device for infants, the breaths are delivered manually using a similar technique as for adults, but with some modifications to account for the smaller size and different anatomy of the infant.
Here are the steps for delivering breaths using a bag-mask device for infants:
- Ensure that the mask size is appropriate for the infant's face and covers both the mouth and nose.
- Place the infant on a firm surface, such as a backboard or firm mattress, with the head slightly tilted back.
- Use one hand to hold the mask in place over the infant's face, ensuring it is snug but not too tight.
- Use the other hand to squeeze the bag, forcing air into the infant's lungs.
- Watch for chest rise and fall to confirm that the breaths are being delivered effectively.
- Release the bag to allow the infant to exhale.
- Continue to deliver breaths at a rate of 20-30 breaths per minute or as directed by a healthcare provider.
It is important to monitor the infant's respiratory status and adjust the ventilation rate and pressure as needed to ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. In addition, it is essential to maintain proper hand placement on the mask and a good seal to prevent air leaks and ensure effective ventilation.
How to achieve successful adequate ventilation?
Rapid provision of successful spontaneous ventilation and oxygenation is the goal when using a bag valve mask. Successful Bag Valve Mask ventilation requires technical competence and depends on these four things:
- An adequate mask seal
- Proper ventilation technique
- PEEP valve as needed to improve oxygenation
- A patent airway
Establishing a patent airway for manual ventilation requires keeping the oropharynx clear of physical obstructions, proper positioning and manual maneuvers to relieve tongue and soft tissue obstruction of the upper airway, and airway adjuncts such as a nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal airway to facilitate effective air exchange.
What is the best way to maintain a seal when you are a single rescue using a bag mask device?
Maintaining a good seal between the mask and the patient's face is critical to effective ventilation when using a bag-mask device, especially when you are a single rescuer. Here are some tips on how to maintain a seal when working alone:
- Use the "E-C technique": This technique involves using the thumb and index finger of one hand to create an "E" shape around the mask while using the other hand to create a "C" shape around the chin to support the jaw. This helps to maintain a good seal and keep the airway open.
- Apply gentle pressure: Use gentle pressure to hold the mask in place over the patient's face, taking care not to apply too much pressure that could cause discomfort or impede ventilation.
- Use the right size mask: Select a mask that fits the patient's face properly, as a mask that is too small or too large can make it difficult to maintain a seal.
- Position the patient's head properly: Position the patient's head to maintain the airway in a neutral position, and tilt the head back slightly to open the airway.
- Monitor for air leaks: Watch for any air leaks around the mask or from the patient's mouth or nose, and adjust the mask or pressure as needed to maintain a good seal.
- Consider using a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve: A PEEP valve can help to maintain airway patency and improve oxygenation by applying positive pressure at the end of expiration.
How often do you squeeze ambu bag?
The frequency of squeezing the Ambu bag or bag-mask device depends on the patient's respiratory status and the provider's training and experience. In general, rescuers should squeeze the bag at a rate of 10-12 breaths per minute for adults and children and 20-30 breaths per minute for infants. However, if the patient has an altered respiratory rate or is not breathing on their own, the rescuer should provide ventilation at a rate sufficient to meet the patient's oxygenation and ventilation needs. It is important to monitor the patient's respiratory status and adjust the ventilation rate and pressure as needed to ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. If a healthcare provider is available, they may give specific guidance on the frequency of squeezing the bag and the ventilation rate.
BVM Ventilation Aftercare
It's essential to continue bag-valve-mask ventilation until either a definitive artificial airway is achieved or spontaneous ventilation is adequate. If a gag reflex returns while you're doing BVM ventilation with an oropharyngeal airway, remove the oropharyngeal airway and provide continued treatment. A nasopharyngeal airway may be reasonably accepted.
If endotracheal intubation is required, ventilate using maximum FiO2 through a non-rebreather mask for 3 to 5 minutes before inserting the tube. If this is not possible because endotracheal intubation must proceed immediately, pre-oxygenate the patient by giving 5 to 8 vital capacity breaths using a PEEP valve.
Contraindications to Bag-Mask Ventilation
Bag mask ventilation should be contraindicated in case of paralysis and induction (because of the increased risk of aspiration). It's also contraindicated if the upper airway or passage by which air reaches the lungs is completely blocked.
What are the potential complications of using a Bag Valve Mask?
The potential complications of using a bag valve mask (BVM) include air leaks, inadequate ventilation, and aspiration. Air leaks can occur if the BVM is not properly sealed around the patient's face or if it is not adjusted to the correct size. Inadequate ventilation can occur if the provider does not deliver enough air with each squeeze of the bag. Aspiration can occur if there is a gap between the mask and the patient's face, allowing stomach contents to enter the lungs.
BVM on Opioids Emergency
Untrained individuals cannot use bag valve masks in response to an overdose event. Spontaneous ventilation is crucial to responding to an opioid overdose to restore breathing, get oxygen into the blood, and keep the brain alive. If you are not trained in using BVM, give breaths, call 911 and give naloxone instead of initiating BVM.
What are the potential harms if Bag Masks are misused?
Although Bag Valve Masks are appropriate for trained first responders, effective and adequate ventilation of BVM is an advanced skill that requires training and hands-on practice. You will not be able to use them correctly if you have not been trained. The following are the potential harms if BVM ventilation was performed incorrectly:
- BVM ventilation can accelerate hypoxia
- BVM ventilation can exacerbate the airway obstruction that naturally occurs during profoundly depressed levels of consciousness
- BVM ventilation raises the risk of air entering the stomach, decreasing the oxygen delivery to the patient's lungs.
- BVM ventilation raises the risk of aspiration of stomach contents into the airways and lungs
What is the Equipment for BVM Ventilation?
- Bag-valve apparatus
- Gloves, mask, gown, and eye protection
- Oropharyngeal airways, nasopharyngeal airways, lubricating ointment
- PEEP valve
- Variably sized ventilation face masks.
- Oxygen source
- Suctioning device and Yankauer catheter
- Pulse oximeter
- Capnography equipment
- Nasogastric tube
What is the cost of a Bag Valve Mask?
The cost of a bag valve mask (BVM) will vary depending on the size, type, and brand. Generally, prices range from $25 to $150 or more for a complete set. Additionally, disposable BVMs are available which can cost significantly less than reusable models. It is important to select the appropriate size and type of BVM for the patient in order to ensure an effective seal and effective ventilation.
How is a Bag Valve Mask maintained and stored?
A bag valve mask (BVM) should be cleaned and inspected before and after each use to ensure it is in good working condition. It should be stored in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight and out of the reach of children. Additionally, all components should be checked for damage or wear and tear after each use. The BVM should also be regularly serviced according to the manufacturer 's instructions.
What is the recommended service interval for a Bag Valve Mask?
The recommended service interval for a bag valve mask (BVM) varies depending on the manufacturer, but generally it is recommended that the BVM be serviced at least once a year. During this service, all components should be checked for damage or wear and tear and any necessary repairs should be made. Additionally, the head strap and chin support should be adjusted to ensure an effective seal on the patient's face.
What is the warranty period for a Bag Valve Mask?
The warranty period for a bag valve mask (BVM) is usually between one and five years, depending on the manufacturer. It is important to check the terms of the warranty before purchasing a BVM to ensure that it meets your needs and expectations. Additionally, some manufacturers may offer additional services such as training or repair services, so it is important to inquire about these when making your purchase.
How is a Bag Valve Mask tested for performance?
A bag valve mask (BVM) should be regularly tested to ensure it is in good working condition. Generally, this entails performing a pressure check to measure the air pressure at which the BVM can deliver oxygen and ventilate the patient; a leak test to check for air leaks; and an expiratory resistance test to measure the amount of resistance on expiration. Additionally, visual inspections should be performed to check for damage, wear and tear, and proper fit.
How often should a Bag Valve Mask be replaced?
A bag valve mask (BVM) should be replaced when it has become worn or damaged, and any parts which are not functioning properly should be replaced immediately. Additionally, BVMs should be checked for proper fit and function on a regular basis. Generally, it is recommended to replace a BVM every five years, or sooner if necessary.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is a bag valve mask considered mechanical ventilation?
No. Mechanical ventilation refers to using a specialized machine called a ventilator, while a bag valve mask falls under manual ventilation.
Can anyone perform a bag valve mask ventilation?
Bag Valve Mask requires training and practice to use it effectively. Even emergency medical responders with much practice find it difficult to maintain adequate mask seals and ventilate sufficient volumes when only one responder can use it.
Are bag valve masks reusable?
Bag valve masks (BVMs) are generally designed for single-use and are considered disposable. They are made from materials not intended to withstand the repeated use and sterilization required for medical devices intended for reuse.
Do CPR masks expire?
Yes, Ambu bags do expire. The expiration date is usually printed on the bag itself and should not be used after that date. It is important to check the expiration date before using an Ambu bag and replace it if necessary.
What is the preferred technique for BVM ventilation?
Two-person bag-mask ventilation technique is preferred because two trained and experienced rescuers will perform it. Rescuer 1 opens the airway and seals the mask to the face while rescuer 2 squeezes the bag. Both rescuers watch for visible chest rise.
Can you use an ambu bag without oxygen?
Yes, an Ambu bag or bag-mask device can be used without oxygen to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient who is not breathing adequately. However, oxygen is often added to the bag-mask device to increase the concentration of oxygen delivered to the patient.