Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease caused by a buildup of plaque in the walls of the coronary arteries. This buildup of plaque, called atherosclerosis, can reduce or block the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle and lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, heart attack, and even death.
Cause: The most common cause of Coronary artery disease is a combination of unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking, a diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol, and a lack of physical activity. Other risk factors include age, family history, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
Diagnosis: To diagnose Coronary artery disease, your doctor may perform a physical exam and order tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and angiogram.
Treatment: Treatment for Coronary artery disease usually involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to reduce cholesterol or blood pressure. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to open blocked arteries.
It is important to take steps to prevent CAD, including avoiding smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. Eating a healthy diet low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium can also help lower your risk.