Health emergencies involving injuries such head and chest may cause severe bleeding and can be life-threatening. First aid training enables individuals get prepared on how to handle such emergencies. First aid main goal is to preserve lives, prevent any further harm, and to promote the recovery of an injured person. The course covers simple life-saving steps that can be easily learned and performed by non-experts using the basic first aid equipment.
The injured person is treated depending on their location and type. Some minor injuries are manageable through the basic first aid kit. In other major cases, CPR is necessary, and also may require surgery. The first priority is always dial 911 and call emergency medical services when there is a life-threatening accident occurs.
The Symptoms of Fatal Injuries Include:
- Absent or weak pulse
- Bloody stool, vomiting of blood or rectal bleeding
- Hemorrhage, heavy or uncontrolled bleeding
- Trauma such as serious head/neck and back injuries and severe burns
- Severe pain in body
- Breathing problems such as choking, not breathing, wheezing, difficult or labored breathing and shortness of breath
- Inability to move a body part or paralysis
- Palpitations, chest pain pressure or tightness within the chest
- Changes in the levels of alertness or consciousness
- Bluish tinge on fingernails and lips
- Abdominal trauma while pregnant and bleeding
We categorize injuries according to their causes. Mechanical injuries result from a penetrating force, cut, crush, or a blow. Thermal injuries result from heat or cold. Electrical injuries occur from the electricity of natural lightning—finally, damages arising from ionizing radiation.
CPR- The CAB of Life Support
CAB stands for “Compressions, Airway and Breathing” These are the critical skills while offering the first aid to the injured person. When the wounded victim is not breathing, CPR should start immediately to save a life. The first step is ensuring the circulation of blood to the vital organs such as the brain and heart. When a person stops breathing, the brain cells can die, incurring permanent damage and death. However, the chest compressions helps keep blood flowing through the body, maintaining the supply of oxygen.
CPR involves 30 chest compressions, alternatively with two rescue-breathes. Wherever the rescuer is unable to give mouth to mouth, they should keep giving chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute. In other cases if the AED is available, the CPR trained persons should begin the procedure via AED device within the shortest time possible. The chest compressions are hardly enough to sustain a victim without a heartbeat. AED can help in reviving the heart to restore a regular heartbeat.
Persons with the CPR/AED certification are more likely to take action when an emergency occurs. The lack of these necessary life-saving skills leaves people as bystanders during the medical emergencies. Once breathing returns to normal, the rescuers then move on to attend to other damages the victim might have incurred.
Injured and Bleeding Persons
Injuries can vary, ranging from minor to severe. First aid training offers skills in addressing different types of damages and to control the bleeding. Injuries can lead to external and internal bleeding. While external bleeding is visible, internal bleeding can lead to fatality when not addressed. Victims showing signs of internal bleeding should immediately rushed to the hospital.
Signs of Internal Bleeding Include:
- Abdominal/chest pains and swelling
- Blood coming from a natural opening such as mouth, ears, and nose.
- Blood in stool, vomit, urine, and vaginal bleeding.
- Shock- which occurs from excessive loss of blood
In most cases, shock is a significant sign of excessive loss of blood. The symptoms of victims experiencing trauma include confusion and decreasing alertness, weakness, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, paleness, low blood pressure, lightheadedness/dizziness, and clammy skin.
Procedure To Stop Bleeding
Bleeding occurs from the injury of blood vessels. Minor bleeding occurs from superficial wounds and the blood comes from capillaries.
Major bleeding occurs from arteries and veins, which are located more profound into the body or skin. The blood from injured arteries and veins flows much faster and sometime spurts. When major blood vessels are cut open, the victim is likely to lose a lot of blood.
First Aid to Stop External Bleeding:
- To avoid infection, wash your hands and put on gloves.
- Lay the person down and keep them warm by the use of a blanket to prevent heat loss. The bleeding organ should be above the head to lower the blood flow and loss of blood.
- With gloved hands, remove any dirty and external materials from the wound. Avoid removing deeply embedded objects from the injury and leave it to a medical specialist. Doing so may worsen the bleeding you are trying to stop.
- Apply pressure on the wound using a clean cloth or gauze for about 20minutes without taking it away until bleeding stops. You can maintain the pressure by binding using a clean bandage, adhesive tape, or fresh piece of cloth. When the material you are using soaks, don’t remove it. Instead, add more absorbent material on top of it.
- If the bleeding persists while applying pressure on the wound, apply pressure on the artery delivering blood to the injured part. Keep your fingers flat as you press the artery against the bone. (First aid training offers skills on the location of arteries in the body.) As you do so, the other hand should maintain the pressure on the wound.
- Immobilize the victim as soon as bleeding stops and rush them to the emergency room. For severe bleeding, apply a tourniquet.
Children are more likely to get hurt while playing indoor or outdoor. Hence, it is necessary for parents of caretakers to enroll for the CPR/AED and first aid classes. The knowledge lessens the likelihood of panic and increases the chances of survival of the victim.
For breathing, conscious, and non-bleeding victims, rescuers can move on to check for other injuries. The first aid trained person can efficiently address wounds like burns, fractures, broken bones, and sprains, among others.
In some cases, it is hard to determine if the victim is suffering from a broken bone or a sprain. Fractures might be open or closed. Severe fractures require proper management to prevent deep bone infections and fasten healing.
For injured victims, avoid unnecessary movements unless the environment is safe. The first step in attending to injured persons is to stop any bleeding. One should not try to push back protruding bones or realign broken bones.
Splinting is a technique applied to reduce pain and is useful whenever the medical help is not readily available. Splinting also helps mitigate further damages to blood vessels reducing bleeding and swelling. It also prevents nerve and muscle damage.
Joint also suffer dislocation whereby the bone ends move from their original positions. Dislocation of joints leads to bruising and tearing of nerves, blood vessels, tendons, and ligaments. In some cases, it is difficult to distinguish a fracture, sprain, and dislocation.
Sprains are less severe and, on most occasions, heal on their own. They result from stretching and tearing of ligaments. Most sprain injuries are manageable through rest, icing, compression, and elevation.
Injuries can occur to anyone at any time and to any body part. Thus, today everyone should have the basic knowledge of CPR and first aid. First aid training programs do not issue any restrictions or minimum qualifications. The procedures are easy to follow; however, without the proper guidance, you wouldn’t know what to do in case of an emergency. Online CPR/AED and First Aid certification is convenient as you can take it from anywhere at your convenience.
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