Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique used to restore blood circulation and breathing in an adult who has stopped breathing or whose heart has stopped beating. Knowing how to perform CPR can help save a life in a medical emergency situation. Here are the steps for performing CPR on an adult:
Check the consciousness
Check the scene for safety, then ask the victim, "are you ok?" to check for consciousness. Try tapping on the shoulders to stimulate the victim. If the victim is not breathing and requires CPR, call 911 and continue with the sequence. If the victim is breathing normally, put him in the recovery position while waiting for emergency medical services.
Place the victim on a firm, flat surface
Position the cardiac arrest victim lying flat on his back. Open or remove the victim's shirt to provide access to the chest. Kneel next to the victim and position the hands on the victim's chest.
- The heel of one palm should be placed on the center of the chest, in line with the victim's nipples. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first and interlock fingers.
- The fingers should point towards the victim's nipples, with the long axis of the hand parallel to the ribs. This reduces the chance of rib fractures.
- Compression is delivered with the heel of the palm. Fingers should not make contact with the chest during compression. Extending or curling the fingers may be necessary to achieve this position.
- The rescuer should keep his elbows straight, shoulders over the hands, and lean over the victim. This creates a posture that allows hard and fast compression to be delivered.
Start with 30 chest compressions at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute, allowing the chest to fully recoil between each one. Compress the chest to a depth of 2-2.4 inches deep, and counting aloud may help keep track of progress.
Give two rescue breaths or mouth to mouth resuscitation
Open the airway using the head-tilt/chin-lift technique to do rescue breathing. Make sure that each rescue breath lasts about 1 second and makes the chest rise. Allow the air to exit before giving the 2nd rescue breath. If the chest doesn't rise, tilt the head and ensure a proper seal before giving the 2nd breath.
Continue giving sets of 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100-120 per minute and two breaths until you see signs of life or when normal breathing is restored.
Takes less than 20 minutes. learn more
If the cardiac arrest victim's chest does not rise during ventilations:
- Check the head position to ensure the airway is open. It may be necessary to tilt the head father back.
- Check for foreign material inside the mouth.
- Ensure that the nostrils are completely closed and that there is a tight seal around the victim's mouth.
Alternative forms of respiration:
- If the victim has a stoma or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing following a larynx removal, the rescuer needs to breathe into this opening instead of the mouth. It may still be necessary to hold the mouth and nostrils closed.
- If severe mouth injuries are present, preventing a tight seal from forming around the victim's mouth, the rescuer can breathe into the victim's nose. Hold the mouth closed while you blow into the nose. Open the mouth to let the air out.
Also Read- Why Choose CPR Select for your Training?
Use an AED when available
An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a device that can be used to provide an electric shock to a person in cardiac arrest. It is designed to be used by lay responders as well as healthcare providers to restart a person's heart. If an AED is available, it should be used when responding to a cardiac arrest situation.
When should you not perform CPR?
Most people want to respond during emergencies like cardiac emergencies by rushing to the incident area and trying to help the victim immediately. But this is not always the best way to help. There are situations where you could put yourself in danger. Some of these situations are:
- If the scene is hazardous
- When something seems suspicious
- When the victim is breathing normally
When to Stop CPR?
Deciding to stop CPR has to be determined depending on the emergency situation. If you’re administering CPR and see apparent signs of life, such as responsiveness, normal breathing, or coughing, stop giving CPR. Other situations where you need to stop CPR are as follows:
- When there’s a fire, traffic or a storm gets dangerous.
- When the emergency medical services arrive to take over.
- When an Automated External Defibrillator becomes available.
- If you feel exhausted.
What is Hands-only CPR
Hands-Only CPR is an effective method of providing CPR without performing rescue breathing. It isrecommended for untrained bystanders who witness an adult suddenly collapse in an out-of-hospital setting. By reducing the time needed to initiate CPR and providing uninterrupted chest compressions for the first few minutes, Hands-Only CPR can increase the chances of survival for a cardiac arrest victim. The hand placement and ratio for this type of CPR is the same as for standard CPR.
To ensure you are prepared for any emergency, considertraining programsin CPR, AED, and First Aid, which will teach you CPR and how to use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED).
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- Always check the scene for safety before attempting to administer CPR.
- Perform 30 chest compressions at a compression rate of 100-120 per minute and two breaths for adult victims.
- If the victim has a stoma or opening in the front of the neck used for breathing, breathe into this opening instead of the mouth.
- If you see signs of life or when normal breathing is restored, stop giving CPR.
- If the victim is breathing normally, put him in the recovery position while waiting for emergency medical services.
- Stop CPR if the scene becomes hazardous or if you feel exhausted.
- Hands-Only CPR is an effective method of providing CPR without performing rescue breathing and is recommended for untrained bystanders.
- To ensure you are prepared for any emergency situation, consider taking training courses in CPR, AED, and First Aid.