Bloodborne Pathogen certification is designed to meet OSHA guidelines outlined in the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. It is intended for individuals who need OSHA-compliant training, including health care providers, tattoo artists, teachers, daycare workers, housekeeping personnel, and general workplace employees. This study guide will provide you with the information you need to help protect yourself and others from exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials at the workplace.
CPR Select offers an online certification course covering transmission, prevention, and preventive measures when dealing with bloodborne pathogens. This online certification course is intended for staff and employees who require OSHA guideline-compliant training, such as medical workers and tattoo artists.
A bloodborne pathogen is an infectious microorganism present in blood that can cause disease in humans. Common Bloodborne Pathogens that cause human disease include human HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Malaria, Syphilis, and Brucellosis. These are usually transmitted through exposure to blood, cuts, abrasions, burns, punctures, needle sticks, bites, rashes, and mucous membranes.
Bloodborne pathogens such as HBV and HIV can be transmitted through contact with infected human blood and bodily fluids such as:
Bloodborne Pathogens cannot be transmitted through
Individuals vaccinated against a pathogen can still become infected as vaccinations are not always 100% effective, and effectiveness may decrease over time.
OPIM stands for "Other Potentially Infectious Materials." OPIM includes any fluid, tissue, culture, or cloth contaminated with human blood, human blood components, or products made from human blood.
Here is a list of bodily fluids that should always be considered as potentially infectious materials:
Most people don't come into regular contact with many of these bodily fluids. However, people in the health industry are at a higher risk of direct contact with contaminated OPIMs, putting them at risk of infection.
OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard is a regulation that prescribes safeguards to protect workers against health hazards related to bloodborne pathogens. The standard imposes requirements on employers of workers who may be exposed to blood or OPIM. These are:
Bloodborne Pathogens can be transmitted if infected blood or OPIM enters your body through these modes of transmission:
CDC estimates that workers in the health care industry and anyone whose job involves contact with blood are at the highest risk of occupational exposure. For infection to occur, the following conditions must be met:
Bloodborne pathogens cannot be spread by casual contacts, such as shaking hands or hugging. However, droplet transmission may occur when another person inhales an infected person's cough or sneezes and pathogens.
Occupational exposure refers to exposure to potentially harmful physical, chemical, biological agents, or environmental hazards such as high noise levels as a result of one's work.
Workplaces where there is a high risk of occupational exposure to hazardous materials are laboratories and medical facilities. For example, a health care professional may be exposed to HIV or another infectious agent through a needlestick injury.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is one of the common bloodborne pathogens. Also called HIV, this is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It's persistent in blood, semen, vaginal fluids, pre-ejaculation, and breast milk. Symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and rash.
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
AIDS or Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by HIV. The symptoms of AIDS include
Treatment: No vaccine, hormones for women, Hepatitis C drugs, antiviral medicines.
Hepatitis B is a bloodborne disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis B virus or HBV. Although it is usually transmitted through blood, other body fluids from an infected person with the virus can also cause the disease. Symptoms include:
Hepatitis B infection is called "acute" when it occurs within six months after a person is exposed to HBV. This infection can lead to a long-term, chronic Hepatitis B infection if left untreated, and the virus will remain in the victim's body. Hepatitis B can also lead to death, but there is a vaccination to prevent the disease.
Treatment: Hepatitis B vaccination, transplant
Hepatitis C is the most common bloodborne pathogen infection in the United States. Among all the bloodborne diseases, Hepatitis C is the least likely to be transmitted through sexual contact; however, it can be transmitted sexually.
Hepatitis C is persistent in blood, transmitted through blood contact, sexual contact, drug use, and contaminated needle stick, about 1.8%. Symptoms include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, fever, dark urine, muscle pain, jaundice, and joint pain.
Treatment: No vaccine available
Universal precautions are guidelines followed by medical personnel to protect themselves from patients' infections and vice versa. For example, washing your hands before touching a patient is a simple way to prevent spreading diseases, especially when no other protective materials are available. Using gloves is another practical step in stopping the spread of germs between the first aider and the patient.
Rescuers can prevent cross infection in many ways, such as:
Personal protective equipment minimizes the risk of exposure to a bloodborne pathogen, especially for Health care workers. They need to consider the possible exposure sources and protect themselves from them before the exposure occurs. Also, more robust protection is required if the exposure extends over a longer period. For this reason, a variety of personal protective equipment (PPE) is available, including:
Fluid-proof safety equipment such as rubber gloves can also prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens.
Work practice controls are measures used to change how work practices are carried out to ensure safety. Examples of work practice controls are removing and disposing of PPE as soon as possible after use and isolating areas of contamination to prevent others from being exposed.
Engineering controls are those measures used to isolate or remove hazards from the work environment. Examples of engineering controls include self-sheathing needles, labeling infectious materials, cleaning, disposing of, documenting, and containing.
Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protections (SESIP)
Proper recapping of needles
Employers must provide immediate confidential medical evaluation and follow-up when a Health Care Provider has an exposure incident, such as a needle stick. These incidents need to be reported immediately. The source of the possibly infectious materials can also be tested for bloodborne pathogens, giving vital information to the HCP and developing a treatment plan. Infection following exposure to a bloodborne pathogen depends on a few variables, including
Even after taking precautionary measures, you can still be exposed to blood or body fluids. Reporting an exposure incident to your employer or manager will help you get the treatment you need and help your employer identify and reduce exposure causes.
What Training Does OSHA Require for BBP?
Under OSHA's bloodborne pathogen standard, OSHA requires employees with occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) to complete Bloodborne Pathogens training course annually, regardless of the employees' prior training or education.
What is an Employer Control Plan?
An Employer Exposure Control Plan or ECP requires 29 CFR 1910.1030(c) of the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard established by OSHA. The Employer Control Plan aims to establish procedures to eliminate or minimize employee exposure to a bloodborne pathogen.
What is the main focus of the OSHA bloodborne pathogens Standard?
The standard discusses a framework to minimize exposure to bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, HBV, and HCV viruses that could be present in human blood, tissues, and body fluids.
What are the four methods of Compliance with Bloodborne Pathogens Standards?
Health care workers must follow standard Precautions to effectively minimize or eliminate exposure to bloodborne pathogens. These include Universal Precautions, Engineering Controls, Work Practice Controls, and PPE.