How to Use CPR Feedback Devices: A Comprehensive Guide

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a critical life-saving technique used in cardiac emergencies. CPR sustains blood circulation and breathing in individuals experiencing cardiac arrest. The efficacy of CPR relies heavily on the quality of compressions and ventilations administered. The introduction of CPR feedback devices has revolutionized CPR training, offering real-time guidance and performance evaluation. This guide elucidates the significance of automated feedback devices in CPR, providing insights into their setup, integration, data analysis, and maintenance.


Understanding CPR Feedback Devices

CPR feedback devices, known as automated feedback devices, are innovative tools utilized in CPR training and practice. These devices are designed to provide real-time guidance and assessment during CPR maneuvers to increase patient survival. They are developed by medical engineers to ensure the delivery of high-quality compressions and ventilations.

The primary role of automated feedback devices in CPR is to enhance the quality and efficacy of resuscitation efforts. CPR feedback devices analyze parameters such as chest compression rate, depth of compression, release, and ventilation effectiveness during resuscitation. By continuously assessing these critical aspects of CPR, feedback devices offer immediate guidance to rescuers, enabling them to adjust their techniques, enhancing the survival chain


How to Set Up Automated Feedback Devices in CPR Training?

Setting up automated CPR feedback devices is crucial in ensuring their effective use in training and practice. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to set up these devices:

  1. Acquire the Necessary Equipment: Before starting the setup process, ensure you have all the required equipment. 
  2. Read the User Manual: Familiarize yourself with the user manual provided by the manufacturer. 
  3. Choose an Appropriate Location: Select a flat, stable surface with sufficient space for maneuvering and easy access to power sources.
  4. Install and Initialize the Device: Follow the manufacturer's instructions to install and initialize the feedback device.
  5. Calibrate the Device (if required): Some CPR feedback devices require calibration to ensure accurate measurements. 
  6. Configure Settings: Adjusting feedback parameters, setting performance targets, or enabling specific features based on the device's intended use.
  7. Conduct Test Runs: Before using the feedback device in training sessions, conduct test runs to ensure it functions correctly.
  8. Document Setup Procedures: Document the setup procedures and any customized settings for future reference.

Blood Pressure Category
Systolic (Upper)
Diastolic (Lower)
Health Risks
Less than 120 mm Hg
and Less than 80 mm Hg
Low risk of heart disease or stroke
Maintain healthy lifestyle (diet, exercise, no smoking)
120-129 mm Hg
and Less than 80 mm Hg
Doubled risk of cardiovascular complications
Make lifestyle changes (lose weight if overweight, increase physical activity, limit alcohol)
Hypertension Stage 1
130-139 mm Hg
or 80-89 mm Hg
Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney disease
Lifestyle changes and potentially medication under doctor's guidance
Hypertension Stage 2
140 mm Hg or Higher
or 90 mm Hg or Higher
High risk; can lead to heart failure, vision loss, dementia
Medication required in addition to lifestyle changes as recommended by doctor
Hypertensive Crisis
Higher than 180 mm Hg
nd/or Higher than 120 mm Hg
Immediate danger of life-threatening complications
Seek emergency medical care immediately
Cardiac Arrest
Heart Attack
Sudden loss of heart function, leading to collapse
Blockage in a coronary artery, affecting blood flow to the heart muscle
Interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to brain damage
Main Cause
Electrical malfunction of the heart
Blockage in coronary arteries
Blockage or rupture of blood vessels in the brain
Circulation Affected
Entire body
Heart muscle
Brain tissue
105Sudden collapse, unconsciousness, no pulse
Chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath
Sudden numbness or weakness, confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech/73
Emergency Response
Immediate CPR and defibrillation
Activate emergency medical services, chew aspirin
Activate emergency medical services, FAST assessment (Face, Arms, Speech, Time)
CPR, defibrillation
Thrombolytic therapy, angioplasty, stenting
Thrombolytic therapy, clot retrieval,
Long-term Management
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), medication management
Medication management, lifestyle changes, cardiac rehabilitation
Medication, rehabilitation, lifestyle changes
Dependent on prompt CPR and defibrillation, underlying health conditions
Dependent on extent of heart muscle damage, effectiveness of intervention
Dependent on severity of brain damage, rehabilitation progress
Risk Factors
Previous heart conditions, arrhythmias, electrolyte imbalances
Atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, diabetes
Hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high cholesterol, atrial fibrillation

1. Acquire the Necessary Equipment

Before diving into the setup process, gather all the required equipment. You'll primarily need the device and any accessories specified by the manufacturer. This includes cables, connectors, power sources (if applicable), and mounting hardware. Additionally, ensure you have access to compatible training manikins or simulation software to integrate the feedback device seamlessly into your training program.


2. Read the User Manual

The user manual is your go-to resource for comprehensive guidance on setting up and operating the feedback device. The manual contains detailed instructions on setting up the device, including installation procedures, troubleshooting tips, and maintenance guidelines.

Familiarizing yourself with the user manual ensures that you thoroughly understand the setup process and are able to troubleshoot any issues effectively.


3. Choose an Appropriate Location

Selecting the right location for setting up the feedback device is crucial for optimal performance and convenience. Consider the following factors:

  • Choose a flat, stable surface that supports the device's weight and minimizes vibrations during operation.
  • If needed, ensure easy access to power sources and sufficient space for maneuvering around the device.
  • Position the device where trainees easily see feedback indicators and interact with the interface.
  • Place the device close to CPR training manikins or simulation equipment for seamless integration into training sessions.


By considering these factors, you create an ideal setup environment that enhances the effectiveness of CPR training.


4. Install and Initialize the Device

Follow the manufacturer's instructions to install and initialize the feedback device properly. If it requires batteries, insert them according to the manufacturer's guidelines. Alternatively, connect the device to a power outlet using the provided power adapter.

If the device interfaces with CPR training manikins or simulation software, ensure proper connections are made. Turn on the device and follow any on-screen prompts to complete the initialization process.


5. Calibrate the CPR Feedback Device 

Some feedback devices require calibration to ensure accurate measurements of CPR parameters. Refer to the user manual for calibration procedures, which involves:

  • Adjusting settings: Access the device's calibration settings and follow the instructions to make necessary adjustments.
  • Performing calibration tests: Use reference standards or calibration tools provided by the manufacturer to verify the accuracy of measurements.


Calibrating the device ensures that it provides reliable feedback during CPR training sessions, enhancing the quality of instruction.


6. Configure Settings

Customize the device settings according to your preferences or training requirements. This include adjusting feedback parameters, setting performance targets, or enabling specific features based on the device's intended use.

Configuring the device settings ensures that it aligns with your training objectives and provides relevant feedback to trainees.


7. Conduct Test Runs

Conduct test runs before using the feedback device in training sessions to ensure it functions correctly. Perform CPR maneuvers on a training manikin while monitoring the feedback provided by the device. Verify that the device accurately measures CPR parameters and offers real-time guidance as intended.

If you encounter any issues during setup or testing, refer to the troubleshooting section of the user manual for guidance. Common issues include connectivity problems, sensor malfunctions, or software glitches. Follow the troubleshooting steps provided to diagnose and resolve the issue effectively.


8. Document Setup Procedures

Document the setup procedures and any customized settings for future reference. Create a setup checklist or manual that outlines:

  • Step-by-step instructions for installing and initializing the device.
  • Calibration procedures, if applicable.
  • Troubleshooting tips for common issues encountered during setup or operation.

Having documentation readily available ensures consistency in device setup and operation across different training sessions or locations.


How to Integrate Feedback Devices into CPR Training?

To integrate feedback devices into CPR training:

  • Trainers should introduce trainees to the functionality of the devices, explaining how they provide real-time feedback on CPR performance.
  • CPR Feedback devices should then be seamlessly incorporated into training protocols, with scenarios designed to include their use at various stages of CPR delivery.
  • Trainees should be educated on the different feedback parameters measured by the device, such as chest compression depth, rate, and ventilation effectiveness, to help them interpret feedback accurately.
  • Individualized coaching based on performance data helps address specific areas for improvement while encouraging trainees to engage in self-assessment and reflection, fostering continuous learning.
  • Debriefing sessions after training exercises provide opportunities to review performance data, discuss challenges, and identify strategies for improvement.
  • Ongoing monitoring of trainee progress and provision of support ensures that feedback devices are effectively integrated into CPR training, enhancing skill development and readiness to respond to real-life emergencies.

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Blood Pressure Chart by Age

Age Group
Min Systolic/Diastolic
Normal Range
Max Systolic/Diastolic
1-12 months
Consult pediatrician if outside normal range. Cuff sizing is critical.
1-5 years
High BP in children may indicate underlying condition. Lifestyle factors.
6-13 years
Obesity, family history increase risk. Promote healthy habits early.
14-19 years
Adolescent rise normal. Rule out secondary causes if elevated.
20-24 years
Stressors, medications may impact. Start monitoring if high-normal.
25-29 years
Dietary changes, exercise for elevated readings. Birth control effects.
30-39 years
110/77 - 111/78
122/81 - 123/82
134/85 - 135/86
Monitor closely if readings increasing with age.
40-49 years
112/79 - 115/80
125/83 - 127/84
137/87 - 139/88
Lifestyle changes proven to reduce hypertension risk.
50-64 years
116/81 - 121/83
129/85 - 134/87
142/89 - 147/91
White coat effect common. Home monitoring advised.
65+ years
130+ Systolic Risk
Frailty, medications, conditions factored in management.

How to Analyze Data from Feedback Devices?

To analyze data from feedback devices:

  1. Understand data metrics.
  2. Review individual performance.
  3. Compare against benchmarks.
  4. Provide targeted feedback.
  5. Track progress over time.
  6. Adjust training strategies.


1. Understand the Data Output

Familiarize yourself with the data metrics provided by the feedback device. Common metrics include compression depth, rate, release, ventilation effectiveness, and overall CPR performance scores. Each metric offers valuable insights into the quality of CPR delivered during training sessions.


2. Review Individual Performance Data

Analyze the performance data captured for each trainee during CPR training sessions. Review metrics such as chest compression fraction, proper compression pressure, depth variability, compression rate deviation, and ventilation adequacy to assess individual performance. Identify patterns, trends, and areas for improvement based on the data.


3. Compare Performance Against Benchmarks

Compare trainee performance data against established benchmarks or guidelines for high-quality CPR. Evaluate whether performance metrics meet recommended standards, such as compression depth of at least 5 centimeters, compression rate between 100 and 120 compressions per minute, and adequate ventilation volumes.

Use the data analysis to identify areas where trainees improves their CPR technique. Focus on metrics that deviate from recommended guidelines or exhibit significant variability. Common areas for improvement include correct compression depth consistency, compression rate accuracy, and ventilation effectiveness.


4. Provide Targeted Feedback

Based on the data analysis, provide targeted feedback to trainees to help them improve their CPR skills. Offer constructive criticism and specific recommendations for adjusting techniques to align with established guidelines. Emphasize the importance of maintaining an effective chest compression rate, depth, and release, as well as delivering effective ventilations.


5. Track Progress Over Time

Monitor trainee progress over time by tracking performance data across multiple training sessions. Use longitudinal data analysis to assess improvements or changes in CPR performance trends. Recognize and celebrate achievements as trainees demonstrate mastery of CPR skills and adherence to performance benchmarks.


6. Adjust Training Strategies

Modify training strategies based on insights gained from data analysis. Tailor training interventions to address identified areas for improvement and reinforce positive behaviors. Consider incorporating additional practice sessions, targeted skill drills, or individualized coaching to support trainee development.

Use aggregated performance data to evaluate the overall effectiveness of CPR training programs. Analyze trends and patterns across trainee cohorts to identify program strengths and areas for enhancement. Consider feedback from trainees and instructors to inform programmatic improvements and optimize training outcomes.

Incorporate feedback from trainees and instructors and ongoing performance data analysis to iteratively enhance training curriculum, methodologies, and resources.


By following these steps, instructors and training coordinators effectively analyze data from feedback devices in CPR training, leading to improved performance, enhanced learning outcomes, and, ultimately, increased chances of survival in actual emergencies.


How to Maintain and Care of CPR Feedback Devices?

Maintenance and care of CPR feedback devices are essential to ensure their reliability and longevity. Regular upkeep helps uphold optimal performance during training sessions. Here's a guide on how to maintain and care for these devices:

  1. Cleaning: Regularly wipe down the device with a soft, damp cloth to remove dust and debris. Pay attention to sensors and ports, ensuring they are free from obstruction.
  2. Inspection: Conduct periodic inspections to check for signs of wear and tear, loose connections, or damage. Address any issues promptly to prevent further damage.
  3. Battery Management: If the device is battery-powered, monitor battery levels and replace batteries as needed. Ensure that batteries are inserted correctly and securely to prevent power interruptions.
  4. Software Updates: Keep the device's software or firmware up-to-date by installing any available updates provided by the manufacturer. Updates include bug fixes, performance enhancements, or new features.
  5. Calibration: Some feedback devices require periodic calibration to maintain accurate measurements. Follow the manufacturer's guidelines for calibration procedures and schedule regular calibration checks.
  6. Storage: Store the device in a clean, dry environment when not in use. Avoid exposing it to extreme temperatures, moisture, or direct sunlight, as these conditions damage sensitive components.
  7. Transportation: Handle the device with care during transportation to prevent damage. Use protective cases or packaging when transporting the device to off-site training locations.
  8. Documentation: Keep detailed records of maintenance activities, including cleaning schedules, inspection results, battery replacements, and software updates. Documentation helps track the device's maintenance history and ensures compliance with manufacturer recommendations.


Following these maintenance practices, CPR feedback devices remain in optimal condition, providing reliable performance and accurate feedback during training sessions. Regular maintenance prolongs the device's lifespan and contributes to the overall effectiveness of CPR training programs.


When should I seek professional service for my feedback device?

If routine troubleshooting fails to resolve issues with your feedback device or if the device requires software updates or calibration, seek professional assistance. Manufacturers often provide customer support services or authorized service centers to address technical issues, perform maintenance tasks, and ensure the device operates optimally. Seeking professional service ensures that any problems with the feedback device are addressed promptly and effectively, minimizing downtime during training sessions.


What are the key considerations when selecting a CPR feedback device for training?

Several key considerations should be considered when selecting a CPR feedback device for training purposes. These include the device's accuracy and reliability in measuring CPR metrics, ease of use for instructors and trainees, compatibility with existing training equipment and protocols, availability of training support and resources, cost-effectiveness, and long-term maintenance requirements.


How do CPR feedback devices compare to traditional CPR training methods?

CPR feedback devices offer distinct advantages over traditional CPR training methods. While traditional methods rely on subjective evaluation by instructors, feedback devices provide objective, real-time feedback on CPR performance. This gives trainees precise guidance on depth of compressions, rate of chest compressions, and other parameters, leading to more consistent and effective skill acquisition. Additionally, feedback devices enable instructors to track trainee progress and provide targeted coaching for improvement.


What are the differences between compression depth and compression rate feedback provided by CPR devices?

Compression depth feedback measures the depth of chest compressions, ensuring that compressions are delivered with adequate force to circulate blood effectively. On the other hand, compression rate feedback assesses the speed at which compressions are delivered, maintaining the recommended rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute. Both types of feedback are essential for optimizing CPR performance and achieving optimal patient outcomes.


How do different CPR feedback devices vary in terms of features and capabilities?

Different CPR feedback devices vary in terms of features and capabilities. These differences may include the type of sensor technology used (e.g., accelerometer-based vs. force-sensitive), the data display interface (e.g., visual, auditory, or tactile feedback), feedback algorithms (e.g., proprietary algorithms for assessing CPR quality), compatibility with CPR manikins or software platforms, and additional features such as wireless connectivity, data storage, or integration with simulation platforms.


Can CPR feedback devices adapt to different CPR training scenarios and environments?

Yes, many CPR feedback devices are designed to be versatile and adaptable to various training scenarios and environments. These devices are often portable and can be used in classroom settings, simulation labs, field training exercises, or remote learning environments. Additionally, feedback devices may offer customizable settings or modes to simulate different CPR scenarios, allowing trainees to practice various resuscitation techniques.


What challenges are associated with integrating CPR feedback devices into existing training protocols?

Challenges associated with integrating CPR feedback devices into existing training protocols may include initial setup and calibration, trainee acceptance and adaptation to new technology, instructor training on device operation and interpretation of feedback data, compatibility with existing training infrastructure, budget constraints, and ensuring that feedback devices enhance rather than detract from the overall training experience.


How do trainees perceive the effectiveness and usability of CPR feedback devices?

Trainees generally perceive CPR feedback devices as effective tools for improving CPR performance and enhancing cardiac arrest outcomes. Usability may vary depending on device design, interface intuitiveness, and trainees' familiarity with technology. However, overall, trainees appreciate the immediate feedback these devices provide, which helps them identify areas for improvement and effectively refine their CPR skills.


What research studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of CPR feedback devices in training?

Numerous research studies have evaluated the efficacy of CPR feedback devices in training settings. According to a study published in BioMed Central, feedback devices, particularly those providing real-time auditory and visual cues, have improved the quality of chest compressions in terms of depth and rate during CPR training.

As noted in the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR), a systematic review including several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one observational study found that feedback devices generally improved CPR performance at the end of training compared to training without such devices.


How do CPR feedback devices align with international CPR guidelines and recommendations?

CPR feedback devices are designed to align closely with international CPR guidelines and recommendations, ensuring that trainees receive feedback that helps them adhere to established resuscitation protocols. These devices provide real-time guidance on compression depth, rate, and other key performance metrics, assisting trainees to deliver high-quality CPR that meets international standards for patient care.


How do feedback devices improve CPR training?

Feedback devices revolutionize CPR training by providing real-time guidance and performance evaluation. A recent study concludes that feedback devices enhance CPR training quality, but further research on their efficacy in real-life cardiac arrest scenarios is warranted. Using feedback led to more people reaching the target compression depth (4 cm to 5 cm) and compression rate (90 to 110 compressions per minute). The average compression depth increased slightly with feedback, but the compression rate decreased. Also, men usually had shallower compressions than women, but this changed when they used CPR feedback devices.

By offering objective feedback, these devices enhance the accuracy and confidence of trainees, leading to improved CPR intervention in the chain of survival and better patient outcomes.




  • BioMed: Comparison of the effects of using feedback devices for training or simulated cardiopulmonary arrest
  • CPR Feedback Devices During Training (EIT #648): Systematic Review (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR))
  • Nassar BS, Kerber R. Improving CPR Performance. Chest. 2017 Nov;152(5):1061-1069. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.04.178. Epub 2017 May 10. PMID: 28499516.
  • Wee JC, Nandakumar M, Chan YH, Yeo RS, Kaur K, Anantharaman V, Yap S, Ong ME. Effect of Using an Audiovisual CPR Feedback Device on Chest Compression Rate and Depth. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2014 Jan;43(1):33-8. PMID: 24557463.
  • Lee PH, Lai HY, Hsieh TC, Wu WR. Using real-time device-based visual feedback in CPR recertification programs: A prospective randomized controlled study. Nurse Educ Today. 2023 May;124:105755. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2023.105755. Epub 2023 Feb 17. PMID: 36863107.