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Nosebleed: assessment, symptoms, first aid, treatment, medication

Nosebleed: assessment, symptoms, first aid, treatment, medication

Nosebleeds, also known as epistaxis, is a common medical issue that can be caused by a variety of factors. They occur when a blood vessel in the nose ruptures, resulting in blood flow from the nose. Although nosebleeds can be scary, most are not serious and can be self-treated.

Assessment: When assessing a patient with a nosebleed, it is important to determine the cause of the bleeding. Possible causes include trauma to the nose, infection, allergies, high blood pressure, and the use of nasal sprays or decongestants. It is also important to determine the location of the bleeding, as anterior (frontal) nosebleeds are typically easier to treat than posterior (back) nosebleeds.

Symptoms: The primary symptom of a nosebleed is bleeding from the nostrils. Other symptoms may include dizziness, lightheadedness, and a feeling fullness in the ear.

First Aid: When a nosebleed occurs, it is important to remain calm and take the following steps:

1. Sit up and lean slightly forward.

2. Pinch the soft parts of the nose together with your thumb and index finger for 10 minutes.

3. Apply a cold compress to the bridge of the nose.

4. Avoid hot liquids or foods, nose blowing, and straining.


Treatment: Treatment for nosebleeds depends on the cause and severity of the bleeding. Anterior nosebleeds can typically be treated with the steps above. If the bleeding does not stop, a doctor may use cautery (burning) or packing to stop the bleeding. Posterior nosebleeds may require more aggressive treatment and may require hospitalization.

Medication: Medication is typically not necessary to treat a nosebleed. However, a doctor may prescribe medications to help prevent nosebleeds, such as nasal sprays, decongestants, and antibiotics.

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  • Nosebleeds (Epistaxis). (2020). Retrieved 7 April 2020, from
  • Nosebleeds - Symptoms & Treatment | American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. (2020). Retrieved 7 April 2020, from
  • Nosebleeds | American College of Emergency Physicians. (2020). Retrieved 7 April 2020, from