Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) has a significant impact on survival rates when performed on cardiac arrest patients outside of the hospital. To be the most effective, however, BCPR needs to be administered quickly and include the following events: immediately recognizing cardiac arrest, calling 911, performing CPR focused on chest compressions, and defibrillation with an automated external defibrillator (AED). CPR keeps blood flowing to the major organs of the body, including the brain, and using and AED will restart the heart. These procedures need to be performed immediately after the patient collapses because the chances of survival decrease rapidly with each minute that passes.
BCPR can double or triple a cardiac arrest patient’s survival rate, but unfortunately, most bystanders do not perform BCPR, even when they’ve been trained in the procedure. Less than half of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients receive BCRP. OHCA is the most common cause of death in the US and is among the most time sensitive medical emergencies.
A recent large-scale study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association examined the impact of telephone CPR (TCPR), where 911 operators guide bystanders through performing CPR on cardiac arrest patients. The study found that TCRP can improve outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. TCRP protocols were first introduced in Washington in 1984, and these protocols have now been studied in hopes of improving survival rates through implementing TCRP on a larger scale.
About the Study:
The study was conducted in Arizona and was designed to measure the impact of TCRP on patient outcomes. The study developed a comprehensive bundle of protocols, which are based on the American Heart Association guidelines for TCPR. As part of the protocol, 911 operators were trained to ask the caller two questions about the patient: are they conscious, and are they breathing normally? If both answers were “no,” callers were advised to start TCPR immediately. The study then measured the effectiveness of these protocols based on patient survival and their cerebral health performance upon discharge from the hospital.
The Study Approach:
This study involved two dispatch centers that serve 30 districts in the Phoenix area which covered approximately 2/3rd of Arizona’s population. The study examined over two thousand patients with OHCA. The study compared outcomes for OCHA both before and after the TCPR protocols were implemented at the dispatch centers.
The study examined patient’s survival rates and cerebral performance at discharge as well as many process measures such as whether the 911 operator started TCPR instructions and the time from the operator answering the call until CPR was performed.
The results of the study were positive and statistically significant for clinical outcomes and survival rates and showed the following results:
- Survival rates increased by 31%, from 9.1% to 12%
- Favorable outcomes (good cerebral performance) upon discharge from hospital improved by 41%, from 5.6% to 8.3%
- 911 operator’s identification of the need for TCPR instructions increased from 69% to 71.2% (not a statistically significant change)
- 911 operators started TCPR instructions from 50% to 56.3%
- Bystanders started TCPR at an increased rate of 43.5% to 52.8%
- Time from the 911 call being answered by the operator to their recognition of the need for TCPR decreased from 111 seconds to 99.5 seconds
- Time from the 911 call being answered until the start of TCPR instructions decreased from 205 seconds to 179 seconds
- Time from the 911 call being answered to the beginning of chest compressions decreased from 256 seconds to 212 seconds.
The study’s results showed that when the TCRP protocols were implemented system-wide, they were an effective way to increase the rate at which BCPR was performed and the survival rates of patients. Unfortunately, survival rates of OHCA remain low, even with the use of TCRP protocols. Early CPR is the most important way to increase survival rates.
The most effective way to increase chances of survival in OHCA cases is through increased CPR training on the symptoms of cardiac arrest and procedures for performing BCPR. Increased awareness of the TCPR help available from 911 operators can improve bystander’s confidence in their abilities to perform CPR with their assistance. CPR courses are offered through many community health centers as well as online.
We never imagine that we’ll find ourselves in a situation where we need to use an automated external defibrillator (AED), administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), or assist another person with any other basic life support (BLS) skills. In fact, these situations do occur and it’s better to be prepared for them so you know how to respond quickly and effectively. BLS training is essential knowledge for anyone to have so they are able to provide care to other people in an emergency. In addition to calling 911 for help, the following is an overview of some of the key skills that are covered in BLS training:
It’s important for children to have some knowledge of the key teachings from a basic life support (BLS) course, so they can help others who are injured or even save lives in emergency situations. Children are an eager audience and are receptive to learning the skills they need to provide first aid help to others. The age of the kids you are teaching will give you a sense of how in-depth the lessons should be, with general basics discussed for younger ages and more advanced BLS training taught to older kids and adolescents. There are several online resources that adults can access to supplement basic first aid training for children, including course materials, worksheets, interactive websites, and videos.
Why Should I Bother Renewing My CPR Card if I Already Know the Basics?
Maintaining your CPR Card is crucial in order to keep your standing with the American Red Cross and for staying current on your training, so you can give the best possible emergency CPR delivery when needed. Performing CPR without valid certification can leave you vulnerable to lawsuits or expose you to possible criminal charges, making it even more important to keep your CPR card and training up to date.
What Do I Need to Know About CPR Certificate Renewal?
CPR Certificates can be obtained through local hospitals, your YMCA branch, and some local community health centers. Look for programs in your area or consider a recognized online certification for a more convenient option that you can complete at any time.
Each training program may have different expiration dates for their CPR cards and your CPR re-certification needs depend on the date given by the course. Check your CPR card provided by the program for the date of expiration or contact the institution where your training was done to confirm the date if it is not listed on your card. Keep in mind that no matter what your training program specifies as the date of expiration the American Red Cross considers your CPR card invalid after one year from the date of training completion.
If your organization has decided to purchase and set up an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in your environment you’re joining the ranks of well-prepared public settings everywhere. From schools to airports to shopping malls and workplaces, AEDs are becoming the norm in well-equipped, safe public environments across the world. Having an AED at your fingertips in the case of a cardiac arrest emergency will make your organization one of the leaders in proactive health care, and adding this type of equipment to your setting is a great asset to have.
Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms in blood that are infectious and can contaminate other humans. Bloodborne pathogen training is geared towards people who work in jobs where they are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, which can be potentially hazardous to their own well-being. Healthcare professionals need to be educated in bloodborne pathogen risks as an important part of their training. The first step in finding the right course is understanding the reasons why training is critical. Here, we outline some of the key reasons why a person should become certified by outlining what some of the main hazards are.
If you’re confused about the difference between CPR and AED you’re not alone. If you’re thinking of taking a CPR or First Aid course you’re likely seeing both CPR and AED come up a lot in course descriptions and are probably wondering what they each are and which one you need to know.
What’s The Difference?
CPR stands for “cardiopulmonary resuscitation”, which is a lifesaving method used when a person’s heart has stopped. CPR requires the rhythmic compressing of a person’s chest. Your hands pumping on the chest will physically keep the blood flowing through the body to keep the organs alive. When functioning normally, the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the vital organs and when the heart stops (a cardiac arrest) it can lead to serious organ failure, brain damage, and even death, all in less than 10 minutes. CPR manually keeps the blood flowing so it can continue to deliver oxygen to the organs and can be performed while waiting for help to arrive on the scene.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) training are two different life-saving techniques, that when used together, are the most effective way of saving a victim of sudden cardiac arrest. Generally, these two techniques are taught together in first aid courses, but if you are unsure of the difference between the two, or when to use each method, keep reading.
What is Bloodborne Pathogen?
A pathogen is defined as a microorganism, such as a bacterium or virus, that is able to cause disease. Some examples of bloodborne pathogens include Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), malaria, Hepatitis B (HBV), and Hepatitis C. As you may be aware, these are all very serious illnesses to contract, and none of them are currently 100% curable, although scientists are making great strides on effective treatments. However, the best treatment for these diseases is to protect yourself from contracting them in the first place.
At some point in your lifetime, you will need to use first aid- whether it’s for a clumsy child who has cut themselves while playing, or for an elderly parent who has fallen and can’t get up. But do you know what to do when faced with a medical emergency, or how to recognize when the situation can’t be solved with aspirin and a Band-Aid? Read on to learn how to recognize a life-threatening situation, and what to do if you encounter one.